History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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2 December 23, 2014


1. D.V. Kudinov
2014.02.026. Degtyarev S. Unification of bureaucratic systems of Bessarabia and Malorossiya during their integration into the Russian Empire in the late of XVIII - the first third of the XIX cent. // Rusin. 2014. № 1 (35). pp. 91-104. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal _page= archive&id =1107&article_id=21354

Abstract:
The article examines some aspects, concerning the infusion of officialdom of the former Hetmanshchina (Left-bank Ukraine) and Bessarabia into bureaucratic space of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XVIII – the first third of the XIX century. This integration was accompanied by the provision of a broad social rights of the local elite, creation of temporary governing bodies that operated given the regional specifics, etc. All these concessions from the Russian government had only intended to accelerate the merging administrations of Left-bank Ukraine and Bessarabia with the bureaucratic system of the Russian Empire. At the end of the first third of the ХІХ century the administrative and managerial apparatus in these lands has been totally transformed by imperial sample. Special attention is attached to the transfer from local tradition of promotion in rank to the imperial standard system.

Keywords:
official, rank, Hetmanshchina, Malorossia, Bessarabia region, Russian Empire, bureaucracy

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S. Unification of bureaucratic systems of Bessarabia and Malorossiya during their integration into the Russian Empire in the late of XVIII - the first third of the XIX cent. // Rusin. 2014. № 1 (35). pp. 91-104.
Number of views: 290      Download in PDF


2. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.027. Chuchko D. The relationship of the state and church in the Moldavian principality in the period of board fanariotes // Rusin. 2014. № 2 (36). pp. 239-248. Code http://journals.tsu.ru /rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1103&article_id=21341

Abstract:
In article the author considers a complex of the questions connected with features of relationship of the state and church in Moldova during an epoch fanariotes. The separate attention is paid to a problem of appointment to the highest hierarchical post of greeks-fanariotes. The number of questions connected with development of religious life of the principality is traced. In particular, creations of educational institutions at orthodox temples and monasteries.

Keywords:
Moldova, fanariotes, state, orthodox hierarches, principality, monasteries

Literature Quotes:
Chuchko D. The relationship of the state and church in the Moldavian principality in the period of board fanariotes // Rusin. 2014. № 2 (36). pp. 239-248.
Number of views: 282      Download in PDF


3. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.028. Kravchenko O.M. The Mykhaylyvsky Monastery of John Forerunner (Ioann Predtecha) in the middle of the XVII-XVIII cent. // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 48-53. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/22_2014/6-Kravchenko.pdf

Abstract:
When Cossacks and pospolytyjs from the Right-Bank Ukraine were populating Slobozhanschyna in the middle of the XVII c., they started to set up khutors, villages and towns. Political events, in particular the war between the state of B.Khmelnitsky and The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, influenced greatly the arrangement of monasteries. After the fights there were often destroyed not only towns and villages, but also monasteries. In those circumstances, the monks had to look for shelter on the borderland territories of the Moscow kingdom. Often a monk set up a small hermitage or a cave, and after some time this place became a monastery. This is how the Ianno-Predtechensky monastery appeared in the Lebedyn region. It was first mentioned in 1676, and the construction started in 80-s of the XVII c. The monastery had strong wooden and earth fortification that was typical for Cossacks fortification tradition of the early modern time. Its arrangement was slightly different from the canonical one. That can be explained with peculiarities of its location and desire to protect the community. Possibly, Mykhajlo Vasyljev, the colonel from Hadyach, relative of the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Samojlovych, took part in construction and designing of the monastery. The families of Hetmans Samojlovych, Mazepa and Polubotok took care of the monastery at different times. On the territory of the monastery there were found remains of two temples: of the Virgin Leading into the Temple and of the Ioann Predtecha. Remains of the big building (lower the main monastery ground) can be also considered as one of the monastery buildings. The monastery was closed during the monastery reform of the second half of the XVIIІ cent. After that all buildings and temples were taken to pieces.

Keywords:
monastery, XVIIІ cent., Mykhaylyvsky Monastery

Literature Quotes:
Kravchenko O.M. The Mykhaylyvsky Monastery of John Forerunner (Ioann Predtecha) in the middle of the XVII-XVIII cent. // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 48-53.
Number of views: 288      Download in PDF


4. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.029. Finnik S.V. The Bulgars ethnonym related to its ethnic origin // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXІII. pp. 90-100. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/ data/23 _2014/ 12_Finnik.pdf

Abstract:
This is a conceptual work which represents a new vision for history studying of the Eastern Europe steppes nomadic peoples and its bordering areas too. Therefore it is very important for understanding the processes taking place in the world of the steppe tribes in the early Middle Ages as well as in the preceding period the Migration Epoch headed by the Huns. It is consolidated the main achievements of the author’s research in the article. Thus there is a new concept which is also proposed to change our approach to the history and outlook of the early nomads. Becides that it’s given a lot of new facts of the Bulgarian history and their related tribes. It is advanced the opinion that the establishment of the Khazar khanate ascendency of the in Eastern Europe is not historical regularity. The Khazars were able to create their powerful state only after the decline of previous nomadic empire in Eastern Europe – Great Bulgaria. The only prince was Kubrat (630-660 y.y.). The Bulgarian nation created some independent states on the edge of steppe region after the state separation and the defeat from the Khazar in 660-670 yy. AD. The strongest of them were Danubian Bolgaria and Volgarian Bulgaria (it’s modern Tatarstan in Russia). The ethnic Bulgarians – Black Bulgars and the ancestors of the Balkars in the Black Sea Coast and Northwest Caucasus, Burdjans (Burgans, Burgars, Burugunds?) and Bungars (Huns-Haylandurs?) on the Lower Volga and Northern Dagestan who staying in the steppes were forced to submit to the victorious Khazars. The Khazars rising, in the author’s opinion, was connected with the fact they headed the resistance of all the Ciscaucasian tribes from Arabs in 652/3 year. Bulgars (Burdjans) were protected only themselves from Arabs. The Bulgar ethnonym was used by the various nomadic tribes of Eastern Europe, who used it for the self-name, but in many variations. The author identifies several options of pronunciation and interpretation of those syllables, which the Bulgars ethnonym is consisted of. In his opinion the oldest pronunciation was the form “Bungar.” It is closed to the Turkic language similaring to Chuvashian and was assigned to the Northern Dagestan Bulgars (in the “kingdom of the Huns”), the Arab authors used the form “Bundzhar” or “B-n-djer”. The variation of the ethnonym known to us as “Burgar” could arised from the mixing of Iranian nomadic and semi-sedentary population Ciscaucasia ethnonyms – Burdjans (Burgans, Bulkans?), who came perhaps from the East Caspian or the Pamir region. Thus it is called the original Bulgars representatives of military units and whole tribes who were on the Hun’s service. The source of the military force were mongol-speaking peoples at first Syanbi and then nomadic Turks, Ugrians (Magyars) and Iranians (Maskuts, Burdjans, Alans). Becides that the author compares the names but not nations – Bulgars (i.e. Bungars) and Mongols (Mongors, Mungals). It is also compared such terms as Hun-Bulgarians and Tatar-Mongols in the Eastern Europe steppes history. The ruling Bulgarian clan Dulo author derived from the name of the river Tola (Tuul) in Mongolia, where previously there were power center of Нunnu and the leaders of the western Huns, respectively. It didn’t have formed a common language among the Bulgars in the entire area of Eastern Europe. The language of the ruling elite was ancient Turkic the same as Chuvashian. However, the Bulgarians who settled on the Danube, saved and used many Iranian, and perhaps even Tocharian words. It is noted by the modern researchers from Bolgaria.

Keywords:
Great Bulgaria, Khazar, Black Sea Coast, Northwest, Eastern Europe, ethnonym

Literature Quotes:
Finnik S.V. The Bulgars ethnonym related to its ethnic origin // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 90-100.
Number of views: 289      Download in PDF


5. D.V. Kudinov
2014.02.030. Degtyarev S.I., Fedchyshyna V.V., Foris Yu.B. Vianor and Аdrian Frankowski: materials for the biography // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXIІI. pp. 56-60. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/23_2014/7_Degtyarev_Fedchyshyna_Foris.pdf

Abstract:
Scientists are still not investigated the biographies of many figures of the past. They are using their knowledge and work have made great contribution to the development of different branches of science, culture, political and social thought. The merits of many of these people were highly appreciated by his contemporaries, they made a successful career. But many of them were unjustly deleted from history. This paper describes the little-known pages of biographies of Vianor and Adrian Frankowski, who were brothers. Vianor Frankowskiy – researcher, section chief of chemical and physico-chemical researches of the Kiev Institute Science and Forensic Expertise. He was born in the Kiev province (hubernia) in 1889. He received a good education in physics and mathematics faculty at the Kiev University named after St. Volodymyr. Career of Vianor Frankowskiy started around 1918 in the Cabinet of scientific and forensic expertise in Kiev. Adrian Frankowskiy – famous writer and translator of literary works of Western European classics. He was born in 1888, like his brother, in the Kiev province. He graduated from the historical and philological faculty of St. Petersburg University. He taught at secondary schools in St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg Pedagogical Institute. Later he became known for his translations of D.Svift, G.Filding, L.Stern, D.Defo, Diderot, R.Rollan, Andre Gide, M.Proust. It is known that the most active period of life of Vianor and Adrian Frankowski came in the 1920-1930’s. The main sources that were used for the study were the little-known archival materials. But still remains a lot of unknown facts from the biography of these two figures.

Keywords:
Adrian Frankowskiy, Vianor Frankowskiy, biography

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S.I., Fedchyshyna V.V., Foris Yu.B. Vianor and Аdrian Frankowski: materials for the biography // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 56-60.
Number of views: 297      Download in PDF


6. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.031. Kudinov D.V. Rumours as the means of peasants’ sociopolitical activity mobilization at the beginning of the 20th century: historical and historiographical discourse // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXIІI. pp. 30-37. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data /23_2014 /4_Kudinov.pdf

Abstract:
The purpose of the present article is to estimate the role and the place of rumours in the intensification, expansion and ideological content of peasant movement. Current thematic justification is determined, from the one hand, by frequent references in specialized scientific publications to the rumours role as the accelerator of peasants’ riots and, from the other hand, by the absence of particular research on peasant tittle-tattles of political nature. Thus, the object of this publication is boosting of historians of Peasantry to such narratives. The author of the article takes as a premise the idea that gossips generation should be investigated indispensably in cross-disciplinary light. The notion of “rumour” itself is mentioned in sciences as a dialog one – the variety of informal interpersonal communications resulting in transferring by word of mouth of the information which is not confirmed officially. It was demonstrated that peasants rumours at the beginning of the 20th century can be classified in three forms: “rumors-desires”, “rumors-bogeymen” and “aggressive rumours”. Gossips reflected mental paradigms of the Peasantry, modified public mind and directed social behavior, which was demonstrated in the works of historians-agrarians. Regarding the time period investigated in the article they specified not only peasants’ guesses, but also directives of the government and agitation of opposition to be the sources of rumours spreading. Under the conditions of propaganda inconsistency and low political culture of the peasants’ majority, who were unable to conceive revolutionary appeals adequately, the proclamations content was twisted and passed in the form of gossips. It is noted that in the rumours of sociopolitical nature the figure of the monarch was a keynote as well as the peasants’ expectations for the desire of the monarch to provide them with land, which was prevented by the officials, the landlords and other “enemies” of the agrarians. In this respect the rumours about the king gained “a family nature”. In such a way, the head of the state obtained the features characteristic to the peasants themselves, which was especially pointed out by A. Gaisinovich. Due to this, gossips received fantastic plots, where tsar and managed by him “princes”, “stewards” and “generals” acted as protagonists and the representatives of local authorities, landlords and officials played the role of antagonists. Therefore, rumours remained an essential part of general complex of peasant linguistic culture with its characteristic speech tokens, plots, moral and value components.

Keywords:
rumours, “rumors-desires”, “rumors-bogeymen”, “aggressive rumours”, sociopolitical activity

Literature Quotes:
Kudinov D.V. Rumours as the means of peasants’ sociopolitical activity mobilization at the beginning of the 20th century: historical and historiographical discourse // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXIІI. pp. 30-37.
Number of views: 273      Download in PDF


7. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.032. Olga N. Senyutkina, Aron Ronald Frederick Gebkhardt. The First World War: Historic Memory and Educational Space (on the materials of Russia and Netherlands) // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 33 (3). pp. 361-368. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1410075945.pdf

Abstract:
The article compares the reflection of the First World War events in the historic memory and educational space of two societies: the Netherlandian and the Russian ones. Some new historic sources of archive origin, disclosing the little-known moments in the history of the World War are introduced for the scientific use. The conclusion contains the information of the factors, influencing the materials introduction. The idea that all objective information delivery on the First World War leads to the elimination of stereotypes in the perception of the events at the time and the appropriate reflection in the educational space and as a result, promotes the understanding between the nations is justified.

Keywords:
history; historic memory; education; patriotism; ethnos; confession; inter-cultural communication; socio-cultural identity; mentality; Netherlands; Russia

Literature Quotes:
Olga N. Senyutkina, Aron Ronald Frederick Gebkhardt. The First World War: Historic Memory and Educational Space (on the materials of Russia and Netherlands) // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 33 (3). pp. 361-368.
Number of views: 261      Download in PDF


8. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.033. Atanasov Georgi, Russev Nicolaj. Fortress Gate of the Early Byzantine Dorostol and the Medieval Drăstăr (6 th-10 th cc. AD) // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2014. №6. pp. 237-247. Code http://www.e-anthropology.com /Katalog/ Numizmatika-i-Epigrafika/ STM_ DWL_ z9re _ YzGCAJkciyM9.aspx

Abstract:
The Danubian fortress of Dorostol - Drăstăr was built during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and existed until the early 19 th c. According to the written sources, the fortress had two gates and actually two gates were discovered during the archaeological excavations. The southern gate has a pair of elongated almond-shaped towers and extensive propugnaculum. Although somewhat reminiscent of the gates of Serdica (Sofia) and Ancyra (Ankara) it is without precedent. The same is true about the plan of the fortress. The eastern gate was destroyed at the end of the 7 th c. AD, and a new gate was built at the beginning of the 9th century, flanked by two rectangular towers similar to the gates in the Bulgarian capitals Pliska and Preslav. The dating of the southern gate is defined around 811-816, thanks to an inscription of Khan Omurtag - benchmark for accurate dating of the gates of the other Bulgarian Khan residences in Pliska and Preslav.

Keywords:
Silistra, Dorostol, Justinian І, Krum, Omurtag, Byzantine Empire, Bulgarian Khanate, Crimean War, Drăstăr, Fortress Gate

Literature Quotes:
Atanasov Georgi, Russev Nicolaj. Fortress Gate of the Early Byzantine Dorostol and the Medieval Drăstăr (6 th-10 th cc. AD) // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2014. №6. pp. 237-247.
Number of views: 271      Download in PDF


9. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.034. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vyacheslav I. Menkovsky, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Aleksandr A. Ryabtsev, Violetta S. Molchanova, Olga V. Natolochnaya. The Caucasian War within the Covers of Voennyi Sbornik (Military Journal) // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 33 (3). pp. 417-422. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1410076307.pdf

Abstract:
The article, using the publications of Voennyi Sbornik (Military Journal) considers the Caucasian War. The first article on this theme was published in 1859. The inner criticism of the historic source is conducted. The major rubrications of the journal are detected. Four major genres of publications, concerning the Caucasian War are singled out: 1. Recollections by the combatants; 2. Scenes from the battle and official information; 3. Military and historic research; 4. Biographies of the combatants.

Keywords:
Voennyi Sbornik (Military Journal); the Caucasian War; war events; toponyms

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vyacheslav I. Menkovsky, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Aleksandr A. Ryabtsev, Violetta S. Molchanova, Olga V. Natolochnaya. The Caucasian War within the Covers of Voennyi Sbornik (Military Journal) // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 33 (3). pp. 417-422.
Number of views: 284      Download in PDF


10. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.035. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Michal Šmigeľ, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Aleksandr A. Ryabtsev, Violetta S. Molchanova. Hillmen of the Black Sea Province (Early XIX Century): Geography, Demography, Antropology // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 32 (2). pp. 150-154. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1403378859.pdf

Abstract:
The article, using the materials by the travellers, considers geographical and demographical aspects of the lives of hillmen of the Black Sea Region in early XIX century. The notion hillmen includes the tribes of the Ubykhi, Shapsugi, Natukhaevtsy, Abazin, Dzhigets, Medoveevtsy and Sadzy. Special attention is attached to the antropologic image of a hillman of the Black Sea Region.

Keywords:
hillmen of the Black Sea Region; Ubykhi; Shapsugi; antropologic image

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Michal Šmigeľ, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Aleksandr A. Ryabtsev, Violetta S. Molchanova. Hillmen of the Black Sea Province (Early XIX Century): Geography, Demography, Antropology // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 32 (2). pp. 150-154.
Number of views: 266      Download in PDF


11. D.V. Kudinov
2014.02.036. Degtyarev S. Violations of Law in the Bureaucrats Community and Their Perception by the Ukrainian and Russian People in the Late XVIII – First Half of XIX Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 32 (2). pp. 155-161. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1403110068.pdf

Abstract:
Studies the problem of service violations and abuses, which were extremely common in the bureaucratic environment of the Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author attempts to answer the question of how these negative phenomena were perceived various population groups in different regions of the empire? It was concluded, that range of offenses, which were committed officials, was extremely broad. In doing so they affected the interests of society regardless of ethnic, social or professional affiliation of its members. This contributed to occurrence of a negative image of officials at all levels of society and in all regions of the empire. Inability and unwillingness of the government fight the offense in the environment of bureaucracy during many decades has led to the creation a negative image of the official. It was display in numerous literary works and poetry of Ukrainian and Russian authors, the memoirs of contemporaries, official documents.

Keywords:
bureaucracy; official; offense; abuse; Russian Empire; Ukraine; the public

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S. Violations of Law in the Bureaucrats Community and Their Perception by the Ukrainian and Russian People in the Late XVIII – First Half of XIX Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 32 (2). pp. 155-161.
Number of views: 262      Download in PDF


12. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.037. Androshchuk Fedir. Rus’ and Byzantine Contacts of Scandinavia in 11 th-14 th Centuries // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2014. №5. pp. 199-212. Code http://www.e-anthropology.com/Katalog/ Istoria/STM_ DWL_tJny_ f80Bf3 VoUIyk.aspx

Abstract:
This paper deals with finds of Byzantine origin discovered on the territory of Northern Europe. The author challenges the idea that they should be viewed as evidence for Scandinavian contacts with Rus’ (especially the area of Novgorod), rather than Byzantium. The paper discusses the mediating role of Rus’ in the transmission of objects of Byzantine origin in Scandinavia. The presence and trade activity of the Novgorodians in Baltic and especially on Gotland is attested by written and archaeological evidence. However, their real impact on trade in Sigtuna was rather moderate. The distribution of Byzantine imports and objects originated from Southern Rus' in Sigtuna and Novgorod shows clear chronological differences and indicates alternative ways of their penetration to Sigtuna. Judging from the written sources the Scandinavians visited Byzantium as pilgrims and mercenaries in 11 th and 12 th century. Their visits were reflected in the distribution of Byzantine objects as well as the appearance of copies and imitations in local material culture. These items must be seen as evidence of syncretistic Christianity spread among the local population

Keywords:
Rus', Scandinavia, Novgorod Trade, Byzantine Influence, Varangians

Literature Quotes:
Androshchuk Fedir. Rus’ and Byzantine Contacts of Scandinavia in 11 th-14 th Centuries // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2014. №5. pp. 199-212.
Number of views: 270      Download in PDF


13. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.038. Timur A. Magsumov. Periodicals as a Source on the History of Secondary Vocational Schools of Late Imperial Russia // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2014. Vol.(1). № 1. pp. 12-20. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1415196985.pdf

Abstract:
The article features the periodical press issues as a source base of research of the history of professional education in the second part of XIX–beginning of XX centuries. It also features the development of pedagogical journalism of this period and reveals the methodology of work with periodicals. The study provides a general review of the most important printed media outlets, which have a lot of pages dedicated to the issues of vocational schools. The article reveals specific techniques of Governorate Press as an important source in the study of historic-cultural processes on the regional level. Through the prism of periodicals, the problem zones in the development of educational system in the Russian provinces can be traced.

Keywords:
education; source study; periodicals; the Russian Empire

Literature Quotes:
Timur A. Magsumov. Periodicals as a Source on the History of Secondary Vocational Schools of Late Imperial Russia // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2014, Vol.(1), № 1, pp. 12-20.
Number of views: 272      Download in PDF


14. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.039. Vitaliy N. Korol. Labor Reserves Staff of Educational Institutions of Ukraine during the Restoration Period (1943–1950) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2014. Vol.(1). № 1. pp. 21-29. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1415197059.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the study of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of labor reserves institutions staff in Ukraine during the post-war restoration. The research is based on materials from Central State Archives of Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine and some Ukrainian regional archives. Features of key administrative and teaching positions were characterized in the paper. The ways of formation and recruitment of personnel of factory training schools and vocational schools were distinguished. The changes in the number of employees were studied. The author analysed the education level of different personnel categories. Major staffing problems of Labour Reserves were identified.

Keywords:
Ukraine; post-war restoration; Labour Reserves; factory training schools; vocational schools; staff; administrative personnel; teaching personnel

Literature Quotes:
Vitaliy N. Korol. Labor Reserves Staff of Educational Institutions of Ukraine during the Restoration Period (1943–1950) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2014, Vol.(1), № 1, pp. 21-29.
Number of views: 255      Download in PDF


15. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.040. Viktor O. Dotsenko. The Social-Economic Stratification of the Jewish Population of Ukrainian Governorates within the Russian Empire in the Late 19th-Early 20th centuries // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. Vol. (13). № 2. pp. 76-83. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1413100345.pdf

Abstract:
This study looks into the history of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire in the 19th century. The article examines the social-economic state of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates in the 19th century and analyzes preconditions for the creation of national Jewish public organizations in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. At the turn of the century, there formed a specific social structure of the Jewish population in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire. Even a superficial analysis and comparison of the social structure of the Jewish and other ethnoses lets us draw a conclusion about the prevalence of representatives of the merchant, craftsman, and usurer social groups among the Jews of the region. The prevalence of Jews within the non-productive sphere led to interethnic conflicts with representatives of the Ukrainian and Polish ethnoses.

Keywords:
Jews; merchants; percenters; craftsmen; “pale of settlement”; shtetl; Right-Bank Ukraine; Russian Empire

Literature Quotes:
Viktor O. Dotsenko. The Social-Economic Stratification of the Jewish Population of Ukrainian Governorates within the Russian Empire in the Late 19th-Early 20th centuries // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2014, Vol. (13), № 2, pp. 76-83.
Number of views: 260      Download in PDF


16. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.041. Kudinov D. Memoiristics as a Meta-Genre of Historical Literature (through the Example of the Reminiscences of Participants in and Witnesses of the Peasant Movement in Ukraine in the Early 20th Century) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. Vol. (13). № 2. pp. 92-100. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1413100498.pdf

Abstract:
In this article, the author examines the term “memoirs” and cites existing classifications of memoir literature. The article proposes the author’s concept for classifying the reminiscences of participants in and witnesses of the peasant movement in Ukraine in the early 20th century. The author notes that memoir literature dedicated to the peasant movement can be examined through the prism of the proposed classification scheme, which will help get an answer to a number of questions posed in the procedure for analysis of reminiscences – the authorship-attribution of the source, the memoirist’s world-perception and views, the degree of proximity to events described, the degree of competence and logicalness of judgments, the author’s expression, operant motives for writing a memoir work, and the specific, genre, and stylistic nature of reminiscences – as well as identify their content fragments.

Keywords:
memoirs; memoiristics; memoir sources; creative memoir writing; diaries; memory; autobiography; documents; peasant movement

Literature Quotes:
Kudinov D. Memoiristics as a Meta-Genre of Historical Literature (through the Example of the Reminiscences of Participants in and Witnesses of the Peasant Movement in Ukraine in the Early 20th Century) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2014, Vol. (13), № 2, pp. 92-100.
Number of views: 443      Download in PDF


17. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.042. Tveritinov I. A Campaign for the Struggle against the “German stranglehold” in the Black Sea Governorate during World War I // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. Vol. (13). № 2. pp. 101-105. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1413100548.pdf

Abstract:
This article, based on archive documents and materials from print media and monographic literature, examines the struggle against the so-called “German stranglehold” in the territory of the Black Sea Governorate during World War I. In the end, the author notes that the campaign for the struggle against the “German stranglehold” was a manifestation of political speculation aimed at ousting from power the so-called “pro-German circles” and as well liquidating German landownership in Russia.

Keywords:
“German stranglehold”; Black Sea Governorate; World War I.

Literature Quotes:
Tveritinov I. A Campaign for the Struggle against the “German stranglehold” in the Black Sea Governorate during World War I // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2014, Vol. (13), № 2, pp. 101-105.
Number of views: 262      Download in PDF


18. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.043. Konstantin V. Taran. Crime and Terrorism in the Caucasus: Typology and Manifestations // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2014. Vol. (1). Is. 1. pp. 27-32. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1429863196.pdf

Abstract:
The First Russian Revolution (1905–1907) was the first revolutionary upheaval for Russian society in the early 20th century. The revolution was especially violent in the Caucasus, where it was marked by interethnic tensions. The article analyzes the nature, typology, and manifestations of crime and terrorism in the Caucasus during the revolution.

Keywords:
First Russian Revolution; Caucasian vicegerency; crime

Literature Quotes:
Konstantin V. Taran. Crime and Terrorism in the Caucasus: Typology and Manifestations // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, 2014, Vol. (1), Is. 1, pp. 27-32.
Number of views: 264      Download in PDF


19. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.044. Olga V. Natolochnaya. Demographic Issues in the Soviet State during the Period Subsequent to World War II // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2014. Vol. (1). Is. 1. pp. 42-48. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals _n/1429863216.pdf

Abstract:
This article addresses demographic issues in the Soviet Union during the period subsequent to World War II. The author looks into the age and gender structure of the USSR population. The author concludes by noting that the considerable human casualties left behind unfillable demographic holes, a factor that had long-term effects and was felt up until the 1970s.

Keywords:
demography; Soviet Union; World War II; post-war period

Literature Quotes:
Olga V. Natolochnaya. Demographic Issues in the Soviet State during the Period Subsequent to World War II // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, 2014, Vol. (1), Is. 1, pp. 42-48
Number of views: 293      Download in PDF


20. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.045. Stanciu L. The faith of the Transylvanian Romanians between ‘ancient custom’ and the articles of Florence // European Journal of Science and Theology. February 2014. Vol.10. No.1. pp. 253-260. Code http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/43/24_Stanciu.pdf

Abstract:
The religious unification of the Transylvanian Romanians with the Roman Catholic Church (1697-1701) brought into direct contact the two European cultures, Western and Eastern, not just at the level of the Transylvanian Romanian elite, but also – through religious life – at the parish level, even in rural Romanian communities in Transylvania. This article focuses on the period when Western and Eastern (Latin and Greek) dogmatic literature engaged in dialogue which proved decisive in building modern Romanian identity in Transylvania. In 1744-1754 Transylvanians joined the theological dispute between Greeks and Latin around the heritage of the „Romanian Law‟ or „ancient custom‟, focused on the Articles of Florence. This paper shows the relevance of the Articles of Florence, as an expression of the differences between Uniates and nonUniate, to the faith and religious behaviour of Romanians during the interconfessional conflict triggered by the monk Visarion Sarai.

Keywords:
Habsburg Empire, Transylvania, Church, religious Union.

Literature Quotes:
Stanciu L. The faith of the Transylvanian Romanians between ‘ancient custom’ and the articles of Florence // European Journal of Science and Theology. February 2014. Vol.10. No.1. pp. 253-260.
Number of views: 264      Download in PDF


21. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.046. Albu А. Church and state in WW 2: the Orthodox priests in Transylvania and the Legionary ‘rebellion’ // European Journal of Science and Theology. April 2014. Vol.10. No.2. pp. 17-26. Code http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/44/3_Albu.pdf

Abstract:
The paper deals with the membership to the „Legionary Movement‟ of certain Orthodox priests in Transylvania and with their attitude during the revolutionary events in January 1941 (the Legionary „Rebellion‟). The prompt reactions of the new military government imposed by Marshall Ion Antonescu were materialised in commands aimed at restoring order, but also at collecting information regarding the participation of the clergy in the activities of the Legionary organisation and the possible funding of the legionary programme by the Church. The unedited documents identified by us illustrate the general atmosphere after the Legionary „Rebellion‟, and particularly that in the Alba Iulia Vicarage and in the Alba Iulia Deanery.

Keywords:
legionary „rebellion‟, vicarage, Alba Iulia, Transylvania, Orthodox priests

Literature Quotes:
Albu А. Church and state in WW 2: the Orthodox priests in Transylvania and the Legionary ‘rebellion’ // European Journal of Science and Theology. April 2014. Vol.10. No.2. pp. 17-26.
Number of views: 258      Download in PDF


22. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.047. Luminița Bejenaru, George Bodi. Animals in the Economy and Rituals of the Cucuteni Settlement from Poduri–Dealul Ghindaru (Bacău County, Romania) // Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica. 2014. № ХХ. pp. 91-102. Code http://saa.uaic.ro/articles/SAA.20.2014.91-101.pdf

Abstract:
The present paper represents a synthesized archaeozoological approach to the Cucuteni site of Poduri–Dealul Ghindaru (Bacău County, Romania). This study explores various roles of animals in the economy and rituals of a Chalcolithic community. Animal remains are described in terms of frequencies, anatomy and taphonomy. Temporal analysis of several characteristics, including taxonomic frequency, indicates changes in the prehistoric local economy. Types of special animal deposits are described, as well as the interpretation of their ritual meaning.

Keywords:
archaeozoology, Chalcolithic, Cucuteni culture, Poduri–Dealul Ghindaru, economy, rituals

Literature Quotes:
Luminița Bejenaru, George Bodi. Animals in the Economy and Rituals of the Cucuteni Settlement from Poduri–Dealul Ghindaru (Bacău County, Romania) // Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica. 2014. № ХХ. pp. 91-102
Number of views: 258      Download in PDF


23. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.048. Roxana-Gabriela Curcă. Greek and Latin Authors on the Carpathian-Dniestrian Territory: An Anthropology of Perceptions // Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica. 2014. № ХХ. pp. 369-382. Code http://saa.uaic.ro/articles/SAA.20.2014.369-380.pdf

Abstract:
The paper focuses on the lexemes and expressions emphasized by the concepts of autopsía, akoé and autopátheia. Our research analyse these concepts in the works produced by historians, geographers and poets and the way that their perception on certain events is influenced.

Keywords:
source theory, Greek and Latin authors, Carpathian-Dniestrian territory

Literature Quotes:
Roxana-Gabriela Curcă. Greek and Latin Authors on the Carpathian-Dniestrian Territory: An Anthropology of Perceptions // Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica. 2014. № ХХ. pp. 369-382.
Number of views: 391      Download in PDF


24. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.049. Ebubekir Sofuoğlu, Ali Aktaş. Sayyid Sheikh Ali Baba Tekke In Prizren // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2014. № 72. pp. 69-107. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1615/1364

Abstract:
This essay states how a state which considers its citizens should be and what dervish loges and their functions are in general. Then, emphasizing Ottomans’ point of view to the dervish lodge, it is concentrated on dervish lodges of Balkan and changes in these dervish lodges. As the third step, dervish lodge of Seyyid Sheikh of Ali Baba in Prizren, which has never surveyed and published, and not very known till this time, was studied. The features of Seyyid Sheikh Ali Baba, which is linked to the Kadiri Dervish Order of Rezzaki’s subbranch, were tried to be given with all aspects. Sheikh Ali Baba lodge of Prizren was examined whether it was affected or not from changes of Balkan Dervish Lodges. Resources about this topic were examined. On the other hand, a field trip was made to Kosava-Prizen for the investigation of Dervish Lodge which is the matter of essay. Negotiations had been made with Sheikh Ilyas Efendi who is Postnişin -head of a dervish lodge, sheikh- in dervish lodges and first had sources had been gathered from this interview about dervish lodges. At the end of the study, changes of Dervish Lodges and international attention to Dervish Lodges in Balkan was observed. It has been observed that, Seyyid Sheikh Ali Baba was not affected by changes in Dervish Lodges of Balkan and it still preserves its purity.

Keywords:
Tekkes, Balkans, Qadiris, Rezzaki, Prizren, Sheikh Sayyid Ali Baba, Bektashis

Literature Quotes:
Ebubekir Sofuoğlu, Ali Aktaş. Sayyid Sheikh Ali Baba Tekke In Prizren // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2014. № 72. pp. 69-107.
Number of views: 281      Download in PDF


25. S.I. Degtyarev
2014.02.050. Mehmet Dalkiliç, Ramazan Biçer. The Social Relations Of Turks With Bulgarian In The Context Of Ethnic Peace In Bulgaria // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2014. № 69. pp. 119-152. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php /TKHBVD/article /view/1512/1322

Abstract:
Presence of Turks in the territory of Bulgaria are based on ancient times. With access to the Ottoman Balkans, Bulgaria has experienced a significant Turkish presence and domination. The Turks in Bulgaria have left many traces of civilization and cultural monuments. Five hundred years held management with withdrawal from the Balkans, there are Turks, who have been exposed to a great persecution and assimilation have suffered seriousy, but they have fought for and maintained their self-identity. Recently, changes in the management and development in line with Bulgaria to Turkey, but long ago given rights which no force, as of the year 2012 came up again and repression in the Communist era in Bulgaria has been condemned by Parliament. Beyond the political developments, al-Ahl al-Sunna and Baktashi/ Alawi Muslim Turkish people lived together with Bulgarian people, acted together in social life, established friendships and marriages. In this study, we deal with the issue of how Turks living in Bulgaria evaluate togetherness in social life, friendship and marriages.

Keywords:
Bulgaria, ethnical peace, Turks, Bulgarian, Alawism-Bektashism, social relations

Literature Quotes:
Mehmet Dalkiliç, Ramazan Biçer. The Social Relations Of Turks With Bulgarian In The Context Of Ethnic Peace In Bulgaria // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2014. № 69. pp. 119-152.
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