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1 September 08, 2014


1. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.001. Dmitrijev A.V. Revisiting Linguistic and Topographical Principles of Russia’s Mapping in the XVIIIth Century: Critical Overview of Documents // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 34 (4). pp. 529-535. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1417270599.pdf

Abstract:
The article is aimed at presenting a critical overview of the XVIIIth century documents stored in Archives of RAS (ff. 3 and 20 – manuscripts by Lomonosov) and RSAAD (f. 248 – documents of the Senate). This period is rich in the documental base; methodological views by V.N. Tatitschev and M.V. Lomonsov are the core of the article. The analyzed sources are divided into three groups: enactions on the issues relating to mapping, geodesy and frontier surveying; civil letters; authorial instructions. The choice of sources is caused by both their capacity to be unexceptionable material in the course of reconstructing historic and cultural landscapes and by the fact that they concern, firstly, requirements for writing place-names on Russian maps, and secondly, gathering techniques of place-names. It is of vital importance to deduce how the attitude of surveyors, geodesists and scholars in general towards the problem of gathering and processing geographical names changed during fledging years of Russian cartography. The article concludes that the Geographical Department of the Russian Empire (having been responsible for all the geodesic and surveying procedures at that time) didn’t manage to solve the problem of developing commonly used principles of writing place-names on maps, and in fact delegated complete control over it to map-makers. This yielded, as a result, to the “free will” in marking place-names onto maps. The latter in its turn caused the occurrence of multiple linguistic mistakes on Russian maps of the XVIIIth century. It became a reason for reexamination of the whole cartographical perspective later, in the XIXth century. However the problem of place-names standardization has become the real focus of scientific research only since late 1930s.

Keywords:
linguistic and topographical principles; place-names; mapping; gathering and processing geographical names.

Literature Quotes:
Dmitrijev A.V. Revisiting Linguistic and Topographical Principles of Russia’s Mapping in the XVIIIth Century: Critical Overview of Documents // Bylye Gody. 2014. № 34 (4). Pp. 529-535.
Number of views: 296      Download in PDF


2. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.002. Velcescu L. Arcul lui Traian de la Beneventum - 1900 de ani de la inaugurare (114-2014) // Acta Centri Lucusiensis. 2014. № 2A. pp. 45-66. Code http://laurlucus.ro/sites/default /files /acl/acta_centri_lucusiensis_2a_2014.pdf

Abstract:
On the occasion of the 1900th anniversary of the Arch of Traian in Benevento (114 A.D.), the author tries to highlight in this review some thoughts on the importance of this monument and many reliefs that adorn it. These sculpted scenes were performed by Roman artists between the end of the reign of Emperor Traian (98-117 A.D.) and the beginning of the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD.); they have a real importance for the history of art as well as history and Romanian culture in general. The scenes depicted on the Arch of Benevento highlight the end of the heyday of the artistic School of Apollodorus of Damascus (during the reign of Traian) and the emergence of a new artistic style, which has been developed during the reign of Hadrian.

Keywords:
Arcul lui Traian; Beneventum; 114-2014.

Literature Quotes:
Velcescu L. Arcul lui Traian de la Beneventum – 1900 de ani de la inaugurare (114-2014) // Acta Centri Lucusiensis. 2014. № 2A. pp. 45-66.
Number of views: 391      Download in PDF


3. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.003. Yaylalı S. Göz İdolleri ve Pirot Höyük Örneği // CEDRUS: The Journal of Mediterranean Civilisations Studies. 2014. Vol. 2. pp. 1-26. Code http://proje.akdeniz. edu.tr /mcri /cedrus/2-2014/Cedrus-1-Serap_Yaylali_Goz_idolleri _ve_ Pirot _Hoyuk_ornegi_1-26.pdf

Abstract:
In this study the ‘’Eye Idols’’ widely found around the Near East Hinterland are re - examined. The idols which played a significant part in mankind’s cultural history were discovered in large numbers for the first time in North Syria’s Tell Brak within a temple, which caused the building to be named the “Eye Temple”. Within this context, the examples which were found in the excavation conducted in 1985 at Pirot Höyük (Tell), located to the east of Malatya, are evaluated together with similar finds: with the similarities and differences determined amongst other Anatolian finds and those from Northern Syria, Northern Iraq, Khuzistan of Iran, Southern Mesopotamia, Israel examples while being separately evaluated. Within the typological evaluation, it was determined that these idols are produced in two distinct forms which are referred to, as “Eye Idols” and “Spectacle Idols”. In this way when the find spots of idols dated from the Chalcolithic Era are considered, it is interpreted that there may be regional belief differences within this vast geography. When comparison is made with similar examples, the Pirot Höyük examples belonged to the “Spectacle Idols” group. The area in which the eye symbol is found extends from Anatolia in the North to Basra Bay, and the Eastern Mediterranean in the South.

Keywords:
Eye Idols; Spectacle Idols; Anatolia; Mesopotamia; Pirot Höyük.

Literature Quotes:
Yaylalı S. Göz İdolleri ve Pirot Höyük Örneği // CEDRUS: The Journal of Mediterranean Civilisations Studies. 2014. Vol. 2. pp. 1-26.
Number of views: 296      Download in PDF


4. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.004. Balukh V.О. The evolution of town conditions and town civils in polish society during the 15th - 17th centuries // Ancient Sumy Land. 2014. Vol. XLIII-XLIV. pp. 5-13. Code http:// starovyna.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/%D0%91%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8E% D1 %85-%D0%92.pdf

Abstract:
The article considers the process of urbanization of Polish society, the causes of political weakness of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and evolution of conditions during the 15th - 17th centuries. Special attention is paіd to the policy of Polish nobles concerning town centers. The author analyses the causes of specific role of Gdansk in terms of agriculture and political life of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Keywords:
evolution of town conditions; town civils; polish society; 15th - 17th centuries.

Literature Quotes:
Balukh V.О. The evolution of town conditions and town civils in polish society during the 15th - 17th centuries // Ancient Sumy Land. 2014. Vol. XLIII-XLIV. pp. 5-13.
Number of views: 300      Download in PDF


5. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.005. Volkova О.Yu. Polish secret movement of the first quarter of the XIX century on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the works of Russian historians // Ancient Sumy Land. 2014. Vol. XLIII-XLIV. pp. 28-35. Code http://starovyna.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/%D0% 92%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0.pdf

Abstract:
The article analyzes the publications of Russian historians of the XIX-XXI centuries, who turned to the topic of the Polish movement in Right-Bank Ukraine in the first quarter of the XIX century. The aim of the given paper is the analysis of historiographical heritage associated with the study of the problems of the Polish nobility motion in Right-Bank Ukraine. This analysis makes it possible to trace the study of problems by Russian historians and identify the main approaches and concepts.

Keywords:
historiography; the Polish movement; historians; Russian Empire; the historical science; Right-Bank Ukraine.

Literature Quotes:
Volkova О.Yu. Polish secret movement of the first quarter of the XIX century on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the works of Russian historians // Ancient Sumy Land. 2014. Vol. XLIII-XLIV. pp. 28-35.
Number of views: 270      Download in PDF


6. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.006. Polyakova L.G. The Economic Development of the Caucasian Region (1906-1914 years): Trade, Agriculture, Labor Problem // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2014. Vol. (2), Is. 2. pp. 76-82. Code http://ejournal36.com /journals_n/1438156490.pdf

Abstract:
The article considers the economic situation in the Caucasian region since its inception in 1906 year until 1914 year on the basis of archival documents and materials of the periodical press. The article pays attention to the trade relations, agriculture and the labor problem on the Caucasus territory.

Keywords:
Caucasian region; 1906-1914 years; the economic situation.

Literature Quotes:
Polyakova L.G. The Economic Development of the Caucasian Region (1906-1914 years): Trade, Agriculture, Labor Problem // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2014. Vol. (2), Is. 2. pp. 76-82.
Number of views: 276      Download in PDF


7. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.007. Mamadaliev A.M. Soviet Troops in the First Weeks of World War II (June – July 1941): the Analysis of Fighting // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, 2014, Vol. (2), Is. 2, pp. 83-95. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n /1438156547.pdf

Abstract:
The first days of the Great Patriotic War and the incredible losses of the the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (WPRA) caused the intense controversy, not only among the historians, but also at the household level. The article attempts to highlight briefly the first weeks of the war through the prism of analysis of the fighting of the Red Army and Wehrmacht, as well as to identify and evaluate some well-known myths of this period.

Keywords:
Great Patriotic War; July 1941 year; the Baltic strategic defensive operation; the Battle of Smolensk.

Literature Quotes:
Mamadaliev A.M. Soviet Troops in the First Weeks of World War II (June – July 1941): the Analysis of Fighting // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research, 2014, Vol. (2), Is. 2, pp. 83-95.
Number of views: 279      Download in PDF


8. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.008. Mitiukov N.W. The Actions of Auxiliary Cruisers and Armed Vessels on Spanish-American War of 1898 // International Naval Journal, 2014, Vol. (3), № 1, pp. 23-44. Code http://ejournal37.com/journals_n/1429866565.pdf

Abstract:
There was consider the action in the Spanish-American War of 1898 Spanish and American armed vessels and auxiliary cruisers. In total, during the war both sides mobilized several dozen similar vessels, made a significant contribution to the development of naval warfare. Both sides were not ready to mobilize such a large fleet, overcoming numerous difficulties with arms, completing and organization of activities of their vessels.

Keywords:
Spain; USA; naval art; the Spanish-American War; 1898.

Literature Quotes:
Mitiukov N.W. The Actions of Auxiliary Cruisers and Armed Vessels on Spanish-American War of 1898 // International Naval Journal, 2014, Vol. (3), № 1, pp. 23-44.
Number of views: 295      Download in PDF


9. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.009. Kolotov S.A. Russian-Swedish Maritime Rivalry in XVIII cen. // International Naval Journal, 2014, Vol. (3), № 1, pp. 4-22. Code http://ejournal37.com/journals_n/1429866556.pdf

Abstract:
The paper analyzes the military-technical aspect of Russian-Swedish confrontation of the XVIII cen. Given short chronology of hostilities and influence the characteristics of the ships on the results of campaigns.

Keywords:
Russia; Sweden; Great Northern War; the domination of the sea.

Literature Quotes:
Kolotov S.A. Russian-Swedish Maritime Rivalry in XVIII cen. // International Naval Journal, 2014, Vol. (3), № 1, pp. 4-22.
Number of views: 319      Download in PDF


10. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.010. Kudinov D.V. Zashtatnyi Town of Miropole in the Middle of the 19th Century: Historical and Statistical Notes // Gardarika, 2014, Vol. (1), № 1, pp. 26-36. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1421078862.pdf

Abstract:
Basing on the statistical data of the middle of the 19th century various aspects of the life of Miropole, a zashtatnyi (province) town in Kursk Governorate, are investigated. Furthermore, methodological capability to use quantitative indexes for the analysis of qualitative changes in a town social life is defined through the example of the historical urbanistic research. Under the conditions of archival sources scarcity, much less narrative ones, statistical information acts as the basis for the reconstruction of the town past, for the study of the continuous alternations at all the stages of its development. The causes and effects of these changes are analysed basically in terms of time frames distinguished in the article heading. The content of statistical sources defined the article structure: the author distinguished the conceptual blocks of the change of the town area, its building, population structure, occupations and the transport connection of Miropole with the outer word. The description of the townsmen mentality which goes beyond genre uniformity of statistical data is rather remarkable.

Keywords:
Miropole; zashtatnyi town; townsmen; estates; trade; agriculture; craft.

Literature Quotes:
Kudinov D.V. Zashtatnyi Town of Miropole in the Middle of the 19th Century: Historical and Statistical Notes // Gardarika, 2014, Vol. (1), № 1, pp. 26-36.
Number of views: 282      Download in PDF


11. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.011. Maisuradze D., Dzhavakhishvili D. Grammy - the Capital of Kakheti Kingdom (1466–1616 years) // Gardarika, 2014, Vol. (1), № 1, pp. 45-48. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals _n/1421078883.pdf

Abstract:
Gremi complex is located in Georgia, Kakheti Kvareli municipality. People appeared on the territory of the Gremi in the bronze age, although its history as a strategically and politically important city, began from the ХV century, after the last king of United Georgia and the first king of Kakheti George I (1466-1476 years), announced Gremi the capital of Kakheti. For over 150 years Gremi was not only political and economic but also cultural and educational center. During the invasion of Shah Abbas in 1614-1616 years, the Iranians were unable to completely destroy Kakheti, but produced great destruction and took more than 100 thousand prisoners, turning prosperous country in the desert.

Keywords:
Grammy; fortress; Kakheti kingdom.

Literature Quotes:
Maisuradze D., Dzhavakhishvili D. Grammy - the Capital of Kakheti Kingdom (1466–1616 years) // Gardarika, 2014, Vol. (1), № 1, pp. 45-48.
Number of views: 296      Download in PDF


12. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.012. Bielashov V.I. Historiographical heritage of "Hlukhiv period" during Hetmanate (1708 – 1782) // Historical studies of social progress. 2014. № 1. pp. 7-13. Code http://issp.gnpu.edu.ua/sites/default/files/doc/belashov.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the historiographical legacy "Hlukihiv period" of Hetmanate’s history, quantitative and qualitative characteristics, personalities of the historiographical process eighteenth century. Their personal contribution to the writing of the Cossack chronicles, Diariush, diaries, historical works of the first attempts to create a documentary base of historical works, shaping the content of national statehood ideology of the period and its impact on maintaining autonomous legal principles in relations with Russia and other countries. The aim of the work is to systematize historiographical monuments created in "Hlukihiv period", establishing their semantic significance to the status of historical thought and its influence on the formation of political mentality of Ukrainian society, strengthening disclosure autonomist sentiments after the performance of Hetman Ivan Mazepa, showing the origin of Archaeological and antique activity and its importance for Ukrainian history, enrichment of Ukrainian historical thought new works, study of the first steps on the application of scientific principles to the understanding of historical events and developments. The objective of the work is to determine the role of the General Military Office in preparation of the high-society elite, in its representatives’ writing chronicles, diaries, compacts and documentary collections, in laying the foundations of Ukrainian historiography, in formation of political culture and national state ideology, in distinguishing such a special phenomenon as public chronicle-writing. The subject of the research is the process of creating the historiographic legacy within the time of the "Hlukhiv Period", activation of historical work, which has much deeper national background than connection with ideas of romanticism and national spirit that have arisen in Western Europe. The object of the work is the analysis of political and ideological content of chronicles by colonel H. Hrabyanka, office clerk of the General Military Office S. Velychko, transport driver Y. Lyzohub, military office clerk and Poharsky headman H. Pokas, regiment transport driver S. Lukomskyi etc. The success has also been achieved in determination of the purpose of writing and content of the public diaries, created by groups of two to ten officials of the General Military Office, personal diaries of the general cornet M. Khanenko, general office clerks P. Borzakivskyi and P. Ladynskyi, general treasurer Y. Markovych, and the son of hetman D. Apostol – after some time colonel P. Apostol. It has been given the evaluation of the first works on the Ukrainian history by P. Symonovskyi, V. Ruban, Y. Markovych, programmes of Topographic Description of Hetmanschyna (1778 – 1781), description of cultural and religious values of 1780 by V. Tumanskyi, poetic work on historical and political topics by S. Divovych "Conversation between Great Russia and Little Russia", political content of philosophy of the Ukrainian democratic enlightener Y. Kozelskyi and the native legal scholar F. Chuikevych. Key words: high-society elite, historiographic legacy, historiographic process, Cossacks’ chronicles, diariusz, public diaries, documentary collections, national and state ideology, autonomous and legal grounds, historiographic monuments, political mentality, antique activity, legal collection.

Keywords:
high-society elite; historiographic legacy; historiographic process; Cossacks’ chronicles.

Literature Quotes:
Bielashov V.I. Historiographical heritage of "Hlukhiv period" during Hetmanate (1708 – 1782) // Historical studies of social progress. 2014. № 1. pp. 7-13.
Number of views: 292      Download in PDF


13. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.013. Issa T.V. Role of private noble infirmaries in the organization of medical care during World war I // Historical studies of social progress. 2014. № 1. pp. 18-22. Code http://issp.gnpu. edu.ua/sites/default/files/doc/issa.pdf

Abstract:
Organization of medical care by the injured military in rear regions of the empire, in particular in the city of Kiev are considered. On the basis of archival documents opening and functioning of private noble infirmaries, their ratio with other private medical institutions of Kiev of the period of war are analyzed. During of World War I the whole network of charitable infirmaries, hospitals and patronages was developed in the Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire for wounded and the sick military personnel. In August, 1914 the All-Russian Union of the Cities addressed to urban population of Russia, calling for creation of infirmaries. 96 organizations and individuals of Kiev in reply responded. Kiev became a strong point for evacuation of patients and wounded soldiers and thanks to the placement nearby to the line of the Southwest railroad and existence of a significant amount of the medical personnel and medical institutions it turned into one of the largest hospital centers of the empire. Private charity is presented through work of the Russian Society of the Red Cross under the flag of which infirmaries both certain philanthropists, and various establishments functioned maintained. The Russian Society of the Red Cross was one of the organizations which carried out significant contribution to the business of rendering medical services at the front and in the back in days of the First World War. By September 1, 1915 the Russian Society of the Red Cross organized 65 infirmaries on 3717 beds. 741 bed (4,6 %) was in 13 private noble infirmaries (from them 6 infirmaries on 586 beds contained on money of a Tereshchenko’s family – a well known Ukrainian philanthropists). The considerable part of the nobility of the Kiev province responded to an appeal to provide free aid by those who suffered in the field of fight and to families of military. Charity of noblemen had civil and private character. On the one hand, in the organization of charitable actions the nobility used the corporate structure. On the other hand, private, personal forms of charity widely extended. Noble class management directly organized charity. In particular on September 8, 1914 the nobility assembly of the Kiev province made the decision to tax one time at the rate from 10 to 30 kopeeks for 1 dessiatina all lands, which belong to hereditary noblemen. In order that the planned funds were used for the help to wounded soldiers and their families quicker, the nobility assembly obtained the loan at a rate of 150 thousand rubles from treasury. The assembly decided 10 000 rubles to assign in the order of the All-noble organization of the help to patients and wounded soldiers and to become the trustee for the entire period of war of the Infirmary No. 3 opened by the All-Russia Zemsky Union in the house of the nobility which is calculated on 110 beds for officers. Thus, from the first days of war the problem of the organization of medical care to injured soldiers came to the forefront and already existing and again public and charitable organizations were engaged in its decision. Representatives of the nobility both directly and through active participation in social movement, helped victims. Key words: infirmaries, nobility, Kyiv, World War I.

Keywords:
infirmaries, nobility, Kyiv, World War I.

Literature Quotes:
Issa T.V. Role of private noble infirmaries in the organization of medical care during World war I // Historical studies of social progress. 2014. № 1. pp. 18-22.
Number of views: 288      Download in PDF


14. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.014. Krymskaja E. Transformations in Land Tenure and Land Use in the Towns and Boroughs of Podolia as Part of the Russian Empire // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. № 1 (12). pp. 4-11. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1398539163.pdf

Abstract:
On the strength of analysis of legislative acts passed in the Russian Empire and a whole range of archive materials, the author attempts to mark out the characteristics of and changes in land relations in the towns and boroughs of the Podolia Governorate for the period from the late 18th to the mid-19th centuries.

Keywords:
land relations, towns, boroughs, land tenure, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire.

Literature Quotes:
Krymskaja E. Transformations in Land Tenure and Land Use in the Towns and Boroughs of Podolia as Part of the Russian Empire // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. № 1 (12). pp. 4-11.
Number of views: 283      Download in PDF


15. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.015. Tazhidinova I.G. “Declarations of Emotional Independence” in Soviet Poetry in the 1930s: A Historical-Sociological Analysis // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. № 1 (12). pp. 48-54. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1398539414.pdf

Abstract:
The turn to the cultural-anthropological dimension of the past leads to re-evaluation of the significance of literature as a historical source. The article brings to light the potential of lyric poetry for the study of the emotions of the man of the 1930s and the history of the Soviet everyday. The work analyzes the verses of young poets (P. Kogan, N. Mayorov, and N. Ovsyannikov), which can be treated as “declarations of emotional independence”. In them, the authors declaim against hypocrisy and asexuality, which were being cultivated in Soviet society, and advocate for freedom of expressing emotions – above all, love feelings.

Keywords:
historical anthropology; history of emotions; the Soviet everyday; poets in the 1930s; personal independence; love; freedom of expressing one’s emotions; external and internal censorship; hypocrisy; asexuality.

Literature Quotes:
Tazhidinova I.G. “Declarations of Emotional Independence” in Soviet Poetry in the 1930s: A Historical-Sociological Analysis // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2014. № 1 (12). pp. 48-54.
Number of views: 287      Download in PDF


16. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.016. Bazhan I.A., Zuyev V.Yu. Casual Findings of Archaic Scythian Mirrors in the Northern Black Sea Coast // Materials in Archaeology and History of Ancient and Medieval Crimea. 2014. № 6. pp. 5-17. Code http://maiask.ru/data/documents/MAIASK6_2014.pdf

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of bronze mirrors dating back to the Archaic Epoch and found in the Northern Black Sea Coast in to scientific circulation. The findings published supplement the knowledge available on the Greek import routes within Scythian world which evidence tangible contacts of Greek colonists with nomadic people of the Northern Black Sea Coast.

Keywords:
bronze mirrors with a handle on a turn and Borysthenitic type; Greeks and Scythians; Northwest Black Sea Coast; Scythian forest-steppe; Crimea; North Caucasus; Archaic era.

Literature Quotes:
Bazhan I.A., Zuyev V.Yu. Casual Findings of Archaic Scythian Mirrors in the Northern Black Sea Coast // Materials in Archaeology and History of Ancient and Medieval Crimea. 2014. № 6. pp. 5-17.
Number of views: 336      Download in PDF


17. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.017. Baranov G.V. A Bulgarian-Byzantine saber pommel from the northeast Black Sea region // Materials in Archaeology and History of Ancient and Medieval Crimea. 2014. № 6. pp. 84-92. Code http://maiask.ru/data/documents/MAIASK6_2014.pdf

Abstract:
This article regards a recently found saber from the north-east Black Sea region and introduces a new uncharacteristic type of pommel ending which was previously only known from artefacts from Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. The new discovery allows to extend the area of occurence of such pommel endings and to assume their Byzantine origin.

Keywords:
aber; Byzantine empire; medieval Bulgaria; Hungarian arms; medieval arms; Byzantine arms; Bulgarian archaeology; Khazar archaeology; archaeology of North Caucasus.

Literature Quotes:
Baranov G.V. A Bulgarian-Byzantine saber pommel from the northeast Black Sea region // Materials in Archaeology and History of Ancient and Medieval Crimea. 2014. № 6. pp. 84-92.
Number of views: 285      Download in PDF


18. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.018. Stati V., Sulyak S. Rusins in moldavian historiography // Rusin. 2014. № 1. pp. 64-81. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1107&article_id=21352

Abstract:
Based on the analysis of Medieval Moldavian and Rumanian sources and works, the Old-Rus'' population of the Carpatho-Dniestrovian region, the Rusins and the area of their settlement before the beginning of Vlach colonization, is analyzed in the article. This is confirmed by given toponyms and anthroponyms. In fact, many of them derive from the root „rus". The contribution of the Rusins to the formation of the Moldavian ethnos and statehood is underlined.

Keywords:
Moldavia; Bukovina; rusins; Moldavians; vlachs; ethnogenesis.

Literature Quotes:
Stati V., Sulyak S. Rusins in moldavian historiography // Rusin. 2014. № 1. pp. 64-81.
Number of views: 329      Download in PDF


19. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.019. Bodnariuk B. Ways and features of Carpathian Rus christianization at the end IX - early age XI // Rusin. 2014. № 1. pp. 121-142. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_ page=archive&id=1107&article_id=21356

Abstract:
The article considers the byway to date problem with the features of the Christianization of the Carpathian Rus in the context of missionary practice of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), the Roman Curia and the First Bulgarian Empire. Chronological framework focused on the end of the ninth - the beginning of the eleventh century, An era when the Central and Eastern Europe, including - land of Kievan Rus became the object of missionary activity on the part of the Byzantine and «ecumenical orthodoxy» and Latin «apostolic mission» organized by the papacy. The author, using a number of medieval written sources - Byzantine imperial and patriarchal hrisovuly, Bulgarian and Western historical chronicles, monastic annals, encyclicals of the Roman pontiff, analyzes and describes the realization of the goal of the Christian mission - appeals to the «true faith» East Slavic pagan population. Special attention is paid to the relevant historical retrospection realities motivation «baptism of Kiev» and the initial coverage, archaic stage baptism Carpathian region.

Keywords:
Carpathia; Carpathian Rus; Byzantine Empire; the Roman Curia; the papacy; the First Bulgarian Empire; preaching; missionary practice; Christianization.

Literature Quotes:
Bodnariuk B. Ways and features of Carpathian Rus christianization at the end IX - early age XI // Rusin. 2014. № 1. pp. 121-142.
Number of views: 384      Download in PDF


20. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.020. Danylenko O.V. Archive Sources in Research the History of International Connections of Ukrainian SSR in 1920th // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 5-12. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/22_2014/1-Danylenko.PDF

Abstract:
Main archive documents about international relations of Ukrainian SSR in 1920th are analyzing in the article. Most part of these documents concentrating in two State archives - CSAPO and CSAHI. International relations is complicated system of political, diplomatic, economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, scientific, educational, sporting and other connections between countries. It was proved in the article that Ukraine was active participant of international relations for all 1920th. In 1918-1923yy international connections of Soviet Ukraine was mainly concerned in it’s diplomatic institutions and represented by officials. But even after creation Soviet Union in 1922 and closing Ukrainian International Affairs Peoples Committee in 1923, Ukrainian SSR stayed as part of international relations by direct contacts between people, by citizen’s unions, by trade institutions, by books-exchange activity, by Red Cross organizations, by transport communications, by communications, by technical cooperation, by cultural and sport interaction or through diplomatic organizations of Soviet Union until the end of 1920th. Personal connections between Ukrainian citizens and foreigners were important part of interstate relations, as we can see from archive collections. There are enough personal documents in archives, which belong to H.Rakovskyj, M.Skrypnyk, I.Kulyk, O.Polotskyj, O.Aussem, V.Aussem, M.Levytskyj, O.Shumskyj, E.Kviring, J.Kotsyubynkyj, D.Manuilskyj, V.Jakovlev, E.Terleckyj, S.Bron and other official persons of Ukrainian Soviet State. These documents shows different levels and different directions of international relations of Soviet Ukraine in 1920th.

Keywords:
Archive; International Connections; Ukrainian SSR; 1920th.

Literature Quotes:
Danylenko O.V. Archive Sources in Research the History of International Connections of Ukrainian SSR in 1920th // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 5-12.
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21. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.021. Khlynina Т.Р. Private Locus: Home and Family in Oral Memoirs of Eyewitnesses Great Patriotic War // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 24-33. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/22_2014/3-Khlynina.pdf

Abstract:
Nature and characteristics of the memories eyewitnesses of the Great Patriotic War of the home and family indicate that they were the most important locus of their daily lives. Life, most of which was spent in conditions devoid of even a hint of the possibility of privacy or shelter from the watchful eye of neighbors. House for Soviet man remained not only his strength but also space swarming life where as in classical theater actions were coupled with the canonical text of sequence which straightened. Frequent change of habitat, in fact, does not change the way of life and the customary crowded environment, transforming it into a kind of decoration, part of which remained unchanged only family. Housing policy of Soviet power and the extraordinary circumstances of life in wartime have expanded the boundaries of the latter, including in its membership people who divided with her a shelter. However, despite the prospect of being so restricted one on one with my life, man, even in conditions of communal life and multigenerational family managed to keep a small but not affected by someone else’s private eye piece. It is not always found opportunities for its implementation, but reflected in the irregular correspondence, stock doors enclosing the room from the common areas and the inevitable clash of views, “street racing” is not supervised parental custody. It should be noted that such opportunities during the war unlike peacetime became more. Another question: is how much they were demand and meet the established way of life at that time?

Keywords:
Private Locus; Home and Family; Oral Memoirs; Great Patriotic War.

Literature Quotes:
Khlynina Т.Р. Private Locus: Home and Family in Oral Memoirs of Eyewitnesses Great Patriotic War // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2014. № XXII. pp. 24-33.
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22. S.N. Nikitin
014.01.022. Cherkasov A.A., Menkovsky V.I., Ivantsov V.G., Ryabtsev A.A., Molchanova V.S., Natolochnaya O.V. The “Nobility” and “Commoners” in Ubykh Society: The Reasons behind the Social Conflict // Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, 2014, Vol. 8, Is. 3, pp. 64-72. Code http://www.science.org.ge/moambe/8-3/Cherkasov_8_3.pdf

Abstract:
This article examines, based on documentary and other materials, the reasons behind the social conflict between the nobility and commoners in Ubykh society in the first half of the 19th century. The authors look into the system of governance in Ubykh highland society and address its demographic and religious aspects. The authors discuss the numerous attempts by the Russian administration to enter into trade (social-economic), as well as military-political, relations with the mountaineers. The article also outlines the foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century. Ubykh highland society was not homogeneous, for which reason the rift within it has its distinctive characteristics. Thus, for instance, there existed a rift between noble (princely) kins and commoners. This rift flared into a civil war (circa 1785), during which the nobility lost their power over commoners. Fifty years later, during the making of the Russian military presence in the region, the highland nobility would not forget their defeat – the factor which determined the nobility’s course for rapprochement with the Russians. Apart from that, there was much diversity about highland society on account of the area’s geography. Thus, if in littoral mountaineer communities the population was mainly engaged in trade, horticulture, and animal husbandry, mountainous communities were known for their penchant for robbery. One of the reasons behind the destructive conduct of the mountainous tribes was their being protected by the area’s very nature, which was facilitated by the area’s numerous gorges and heavy-going terrain. Of major importance is the discovered link between the 1785 Ubykh civil war and the commencement of the process of Islamization of the region. It was after the defeat of the nobility in the civil war that a new system of religious rules was instituted in highland society, which allowed them to profess Islam. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the social crisis in Ubykh society was a crucial factor that led the mountaineers to the muhajirism tragedy. Other reasons the authors cite include the fact that the mountaineers, who were poorly versed in politics, became a tool in the hands of Great Britain, Turkey, Poland, and other countries in their contention against the Russian Empire. For that reason, the antagonism between the warring sides was in large part fueled from the outside. Overall, the leading European powers of the time were keen to thwart Russia’s influence – not only in the Caucasus but also Turkestan, and later on – in the early 20th century – in Korea and China.

Keywords:
Ubykhs; nobility; commoners; civil war; Christianity; Islam.

Literature Quotes:
Cherkasov A.A., Menkovsky V.I., Ivantsov V.G., Ryabtsev A.A., Molchanova V.S., Natolochnaya O.V. The “Nobility” and “Commoners” in Ubykh Society: The Reasons behind the Social Conflict // Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, 2014, Vol. 8, Is. 3, pp. 64-72.
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23. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.023. Ceia V. Ordo et rusticitas sau Despre romanitatea exemplară // Acta Centri Lucusiensis. 2014. № 2A. pp. 67-75. Code http://laurlucus.ro/sites/default /files /acl/acta_ centri _lucusiensis_2a_2014.pdf

Abstract:
We live in the middle of the tumultuous life of the city. From the heights of the urban society, we are inclined to consider rural life a sign of an inferior existence, unfit for the metropolis’ refined spirits. But on a closer look, we discover the character and conscience shaping role that agriculture had in the roman world. To struggle day by day in the field, with the unfavorable weather gods, diseases, to continue with the rigor of Sisif, the field work does not mean the existential brutalization, on the contrary, it implies the practice and refinement of sine qua non qualities. This writing traces how the distance from the discipline and simplicity of the rural life gradually destructs features that had built the greatest empire.

Keywords:
Ordo; Despre romanitatea exemplară.

Literature Quotes:
Ceia V. Ordo et rusticitas sau Despre romanitatea exemplară // Acta Centri Lucusiensis. 2014. № 2A. pp. 67-75.
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24. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.024. Timoc C. Dacii în armata romană târzie // Acta Centri Lucusiensis. 2014. № 2A. pp. 76-78. Code http://laurlucus.ro/sites/default /files /acl/acta_centri_lucusiensis_2a_2014.pdf

Abstract:
The Dacians have fought in the roman army since the 2nd century and their weapons made them famous in antiquity. A whole series of military units survive the wars and military they was used in the basis campaign armies of the Illyrian Emperors of Rome. Gallerius’s arch gives us enough clues in this regard.

Keywords:
Dacii; armata romană târzie.

Literature Quotes:
Timoc C. Dacii în armata romană târzie // Acta Centri Lucusiensis. 2014. № 2A. pp. 76-78.
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25. S.N. Nikitin
2014.01.025. Taran K.V. The Everyday Life of the Mounted Police Guard Force in the Territory of the Black Sea Governorate (1901–1909) // Bylye Gody. 2014. No 34 (4), pp. 582-585. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1417270856.pdf

Abstract:
This article addresses the everyday life of the mounted police guard force in the territory of the Black Sea Governorate – more specifically, the territory of Sochi Okrug. On the eve of and during the 1905-1907 revolutionary events, it was this area where an extremely volatile situation had persisted due to interethnic conflicts. It was in hopes of enhancing authority in the region that the mounted police guard force was set up, which consisted of Cossacks, the Ingush, and Ossetians. In conclusion, the author points up that, on the whole, the mounted police guard force did a good job performing its law enforcement duties in the region‘s territory during the pre-revolutionary and revolutionary periods.

Keywords:
mounted police guard force; Black Sea Governorate; everyday activity.

Literature Quotes:
Taran K.V. The Everyday Life of the Mounted Police Guard Force in the Territory of the Black Sea Governorate (1901–1909) // Bylye Gody. 2014. No 34 (4), pp. 582-585.
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full number
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