History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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3 September 28, 2015


1.
2015.03.051. Akbalik Esra. Pre-Islamic Belief Motives In Shah Ismael Hatayi, Pir Sultan Abdal And Kul Himmet’s Poems // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi.2015. № 75. pp.49-75. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1778/1427

Abstract:
Turks having a history of quite ancient and presence in a wide geography in a large amount of time has remained in the effect of a number of different religions, faiths and cultures on the land where they lived and had for centuries. In a long historical process, the old/new multi-faith coexistence and culture, with a full analogy place in the social structure of Turkish culture and faith have created mosaics. Until to Islam, animism, shamanism, Buddhism, Manichaeism and monotheistic religions as belief systems and the cult, customs and practices linked to these belief systems has been extremely effective and decisive in shaping the Turkish world of thought and consequently the attitudes, behaviors and their way of life. Pre-Islamic beliefs and practices linked to beliefs in different areas of life showed their presence. One of these areas is the literary texts. Alewi-Bektashi literature of pre-Islamic culture and consequent belief system is one of the areas where they are mostly present. In this study, pre-Islamic beliefs found in the poems of Shah Ismael Hatayi, Pir Sultan Abdal and Kul Himmet, all of whom were among the most powerful and great sounds at the same time and mentioned in ‘Seven Greatest Poets’ of Alewism and the related motifs will be studied and faith and culture ground of Alewi-Bektashi poems will tried to be revealed. The study will comprise the reviews of 1321 pieces of poetry compiled by a variety of writers and the interpretations based on these reviews.

Keywords:
Shah Ismael Hatayi, Pir Sultan Abdal, Kul Himmet, poem, faith.

Literature Quotes:
Akbalik Esra. Pre-Islamic Belief Motives In Shah Ismael Hatayi, Pir SultanAbdal And Kul Himmet’s Poems // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi.2015. № 75. pp.49-75.
Number of views: 258      Download in PDF


2.
2015.03.052. Gerasko M.A. The Estate of Kyrylo Rozumovskyi from the Unkown Drawing // Gardarika, 2015, Vol. (3), Is. 2. pp. 48-57. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1436205460.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the history of the construction and destruction of the suburban residence of K. Rozumovskyi. The country estate was built on the southern territory of Goncharivka (Baturyn suburb ) on the site of the palace of I. Mazepa. Archaeologists has proved, that this place was not burned and ruined by O. Menshykov's troops, in comparison with the town Baturyn. According to the historical sources the church and the walls of Mazepa's palace were preserved and Kyrylo Rozumovskyi decided to use it for his suburban residence. In 1750 empress Elyzaveta Petrivna issued an Edict to transfer the hetman's capital from Glukhiv to Baturyn and, possibly, Kyrylo Rozumovskyi, having his own reasons for that, made a dicision to build his residence on that very place, where the mansion of I. Mazepa and his predecessors were located before.

Keywords:
Baturyn, Mazepa, Rozumovskyi, Goncharovka, Gorodok, out-of-town residence.

Literature Quotes:
Gerasko M.A. The Estate of Kyrylo Rozumovskyi from the Unkown Drawing // Gardarika, 2015, Vol. (3), Is. 2. pp. 48-57
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


3.
2015.03.053. Bondar A.N. Fortress of the Sosnitsa in 17th – 18th centuries // Gardarika, 2015, Vol. (4), Is. 3. pp.84-90. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1446473847.pdf

Abstract:
The article examines the problems of the city fortification of Sosnitsa in the 17th – 18th centuries. It was originated in the first half of the 17th century as a private Alexander Pisochinsky’s castle. In the middle of the 17th century Sosnitsa became one of the largest cities in Chernihiv region. For a while it was the center of Sosnitsky Regiment. In the 18th century, its fortifications were adapted for combat with artillery. Fortress of Sosnitsa was eliminated in the late 18th – early 19th centuries.

Keywords:
Sosnitsa, Chernihiv region, the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, Hetmanat, fortress, castle.

Literature Quotes:
Bondar A.N. Fortress of the Sosnitsa in 17th – 18th centuries // Gardarika, 2015, Vol. (4), Is. 3. pp.84-90.
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


4.
2015.03.054. Osadchij E.M. The Fortress of Nedrygaylov City (XVII-XVIII centuries) // Gardarika, 2015, Vol. (4), Is. 3. pp.107-120. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1446474052.pdf

Abstract:
The active settling of the Upper Posule begins in the first half of the XVII century. One of the fortified settlements, which are being built at that time, was Nedrigayliv castle. After passing it to Moscow side, it was rebuilt and the numbers of people were increasing. Castle had a three-part structure and consisted of small, medium and large cities. During the Northern War Nedrigayliv withstood the siege of the Swedish army. Location in a swampy area affects the preservation of wooden fortifications. The wooden walls finally collapsed and never repaired in the middle of the XVIII century. In 1787 year Nedrigayliv was rebuilt on a new plan, changing its layout.

Keywords:
castle, Nedrigayliv city, fort, Great Northern War, 17-18 centuries.

Literature Quotes:
Osadchij E.M. The Fortress of Nedrygaylov City (XVII-XVIII centuries) // Gardarika, 2015, Vol. (4), Is. 3. pp.107-120.
Number of views: 243      Download in PDF


5.
2015.03.055. Degtyarev S.I. The Officialdom of the Russian Empire: Review of Western European and American Historiography of 1960th – 1980th // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2015, Vol.(5), Is. 3. pp. 100-110. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1444134246.pdf

Abstract:
Analyzed studying the history of the bureaucracy of the Russian empire XVIII-XIX centuries in the West European and American historiography. The merit of the scientists was the study of not only the administrative and political development of officials of the Russian empire, but also its socio-psychological and personal aspects. For example, researchers are actively studying: the influence of Russian officials on economic and social life of the empire (L. Mises); psychological connection of the nobility and the representatives of other classes with public service (М. Raeff, Р. Dukes, W. Pintner); worldview of officials (R. Wortman); the transformation of officials into a separate social and administrative group (J. Hassell); personnel of different state institutions (J.P. LeDonne, R.D. Givens, R. Wortman); system of service incentives (H.A. Bennett); the impact of the progressive representatives of the higher bureaucracy for reforms of the first half of the nineteenth century (W.B. Lincoln) etc. Special attention is paid to scientific use members of the American school of russistika, the appearance of which is associated with the beginning of the exchange of experience between the Soviet and American researchers in the 60-70 years of the twentieth century.

Keywords:
Western European and American historiography, school of russistika, the Russian Empire, the officials, the bureaucracy.

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S.I. The Officialdom of the Russian Empire: Review of Western European and American Historiography of 1960th – 1980th // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya, 2015, Vol.(5), Is. 3. pp. 100-110.
Number of views: 245      Download in PDF


6.
2015.03.056. Serdiuk I.A. Childhood and its Age Limits in Society of Getmanat in the XVIII Century // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 499-507. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1442664548.pdf

Abstract:
This article will talk about the child in society of Hetman – the autonomous entity within the Russian Empire, which was rapidly losing the remnants of autonomy in the second half of the XVIII century, subjecting to the desire of the center to modernize and unify its border territory. Such interaction of traditions and innovations influenced the public's worldview and determined the attitude to the family, marriage, child. These topics are still relatively poorly studied in the Ukrainian material, particularly the problems of childhood. The studies of actually "little man" in Ukraine of XVIII century are made virtually from a clean slate and at the beginning it is necessary to determine whom society is considered as a child, and also when the childhood is ended. This issue is harder than it seems at first glance, because the society of Hetmanate in relation to children was guided by the stratagem of folk traditions, religious norms, the "old" law (the Lithuanian Statute, the Magdeburg right and sachsenspiegel inherited from the Commonwealth) and the "new" laws of the Russian Empire. They determined the age of adulthood in different ways, when the individual became a child and was no longer to be, as well as the criteria of those age limits. It is important that the legal mechanisms of age-identification included in the action in the case of judicial proceedings, property disputes, marital conflicts. On a daily level, the perception of childhood and maturity depended on the combination of external features of an individual (body type, facial features, etc.), conduct, and perform social roles. A huge role is played the institution of marriage, act of which was probably the most important and revealing marker of the fact that the kid finally became an adult.

Keywords:
adulthood, age, Hetman, childhood, child, law.

Literature Quotes:
Serdiuk I.A. Childhood and its Age Limits in Society of Getmanat in the XVIII Century // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 499-507.
Number of views: 246      Download in PDF


7.
2015.03.057. Cherkasov A.A., Ivantsov V.G., Ustinovich E.S., Kryukova N.I., Molchanova V.S. The Moving of the Ubykhs to the Russian Service as a Result of the Peace Initiatives in the First Half of the 1840s Years // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 541-548. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1442664679.pdf

Abstract:
The article on the base of first introduced in scientific use the archival documents considers the facts of the adoption by Ubykh princes the oath of allegiance to the Emperor Nicholas I. The article was preparing by using the documents of the Russian state historical archive, the state archive of the Krasnodar region and the archival Department of Sochi administration. The authors show that in the first half of the 1840s years the Ubykh princes and the russian administration have taken the effective steps to appease the region. As a result, some of the Ubykh princes became the officers of the Russian Imperial army. However, the total peace has not happened. The reason for this was the disunity of mountain society, occurred as a result of Russia's policy.

Keywords:
the Ubykhs, Circassians, mountain princes, the oath, russian administration, Nicholas I, foreign emissaries, amanats.

Literature Quotes:
Cherkasov A.A., Ivantsov V.G., Ustinovich E.S., Kryukova N.I., Molchanova V.S. The Moving of the Ubykhs to the Russian Service as a Result of the Peace Initiatives in the First Half of the 1840s Years // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 541-548.
Number of views: 255      Download in PDF


8.
2015.03.058. Karataev V.B., Volvenko A.A., Varfolomeev A.G. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834-1847 years) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 536-540. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1442664648.pdf

Abstract:
The article on the basis of archival sources examines the work of foreign emissaries on the Black Sea coastline in 1834-1847 years. The significant part of sources is introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The importance is given to the activities of foreign agents, their life among the hillmen, and methods of fighting of the Russian administration with foreign agents. The author comes to the conclusion that in the period of 1834-1847 years, on the Black Sea coastline the emissaries were carried out the diverse activities aimed against the Russian Empire. This activity was shown at the instigation of the hillmen for the war against Russia, the spread of false information, work as instructors, as well as to the personal involvement of emissaries in fighting.

Keywords:
Black Sea coastline, the emissaries, the Russian administration, the hillmen.

Literature Quotes:
Karataev V.B., Volvenko A.A., Varfolomeev A.G. The Fight Against Emissaries across the Black Sea Coastline Area (1834-1847 years) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 536-540.
Number of views: 252      Download in PDF


9.
2015.03.059. Shaidurov V.N., Norkina E.S. Law, Imperial Bureaucracy and Russian Jews Beyond the Pale of Settlement in 19 – Beginning of the 20th Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 623-632. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1442664940.pdf

Abstract:
Studies into history of regional Jewish communities in the Russian Empire in the period between the 19th and early 20th century have so far been extremely erratic. There are topics that have rarely come into focus of Russian, Israeli and American Jewish studies. North Caucasus and Siberia were not included in the Pale of Settlement. The Jews who lived in Siberia as in North Caucasus had a specific legal status. Discrepancies in the national and regional laws adversely affected the lives and activities of local Jewish communities. Not only did the laws determine areas where Jews were permitted to reside, but also those sectors of the economy in which they could work. Law-making in the 19th and early 20th century regarding the Jewish population of Siberia and North Caucasus had no general trend and was subject to change from conservative to liberal character, depending on the state‘s national policy. In this article, we will make use of specific examples and comparative analyse to look at the dynamics of the Russian laws on Jews of Siberia and North Caucasus in the 19th and early 20th century. This article is based on archival materials and acts of legislation.

Keywords:
Jews, Siberia, North Caucasus, Pale of Settlement, segregation, exile, subbothnicks.

Literature Quotes:
Shaidurov V.N., Norkina E.S. Law, Imperial Bureaucracy and Russian Jews Beyond the Pale of Settlement in 19 – Beginning of the 20th Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 623-632.
Number of views: 249      Download in PDF


10.
2015.03.060. Taran K.V., Kryukova N.I. The Suburbs During the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 Years (on the Example of Tuapse District of the Black Sea Province) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 670-675. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1442665111.pdf

Abstract:
The article on the base of archival documents considers the events of the First Russian revolution in the Tuapse district of the Black Sea province. The article is paid attention to the activities of the social revolutionaries, peasants‘ union and representatives of other political parties. The author comes to the conclusion that the Manifest of 17 October 1905 became the starting point of a fundamentally new hard revolutionary violence, which peaked in the winter of 1905-1906 years. The armed uprisings took place in two of the three districts of the Black Sea province (Novorossiysk and Sochi districts) and only a strong antiRepublican stance of the administration of Tuapse district has managed to keep the situation in a legal way.

Keywords:
the First Russian revolution, the Black Sea province, posad Tuapse, Tuapse district, 1905-1907 years.

Literature Quotes:
Taran K.V., Kryukova N.I. The Suburbs During the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 Years (on the Example of Tuapse District of the Black Sea Province) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 3 (37). pp. 670-675.
Number of views: 243      Download in PDF


11.
2015.03.061. Burdiashvili Maia. Episodes from the Life of Kakutsa Cholokashvili // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2015, Vol. (15), Is. 2, pp. 82-86. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1437485300.pdf

Abstract:
Happy people who have the worthy sons to be proud of. The national hero is the pride of the past, present and future of the country, he carries with dignity his heavy burden to his motherland and people. These people leave the neoslavery mark in the consciousness of nation, create a history and influence the formation of future generations. But it often happens that the rumors and different views about famous people negatively set up the society, as a result, their committed heroic acts are in the shadows for decades. Only time and a radical change in political beliefs allow the correct assessment of the personalities of those or other phenomena. With this the company receives the impetus for the reassessment of values and in the future, it may pay proper respect to their heroes.

Keywords:
motherland, the national liberation movement, Kakutsa Cholokashvili, First world war, emigration, companion.

Literature Quotes:
Burdiashvili Maia. Episodes from the Life of Kakutsa Cholokashvili // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2015, Vol. (15), Is. 2, pp. 82-86.
Number of views: 243      Download in PDF


12.
2015.03.062. Gichibekovа Razhabat M. Russian Policy towards Islam in the Caucasus (XVI-XIX Centuries) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2015, Vol. (15), Is. 2, pp. 87-92. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1437485370.pdf

Abstract:
In article on the basis of little-known materials are analyzed relations of the Russian Empire with the world of Islam, which have a long history. It is proved that the logic of development that dominated Russian politics XVI-XIX centuries has resulted in a dramatic expansion of the country's borders to the South and East have entered into its composition significant areas with large Muslim populations. The vast number of Royal officials were aware that quantitatively and qualitatively increasing the mass of the adherents of Islam have kept, and will continue to maintain the Sharia, and change something in this direction, "the weakening of Islam" is almost impossible, although attempts to undermine the influence of Islam within the Empire did not stop the authorities until the revolution of 1917, the conclusions that all attempts autocracy to predispose to itself the Muslim world in the Caucasus have not yielded tangible results. The Islamic religion was a strong influence on the internal situation in the Northern region, and the opposition of powerful Christian nation and the reason for this was the large-scale expansion of the Russian Empire.

Keywords:
islamic religion, the Russian Empire, the northern region, the muslim world, christian power, civilizing mission, a large-scale expansion.

Literature Quotes:
Gichibekovа Razhabat M. Russian Policy towards Islam in the Caucasus (XVI-XIX Centuries) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2015, Vol. (15), Is. 2, pp. 87-92.
Number of views: 246      Download in PDF


13.
2015.03.063. Khachidogov Ruslan A. The Genesis of the Study of the North Caucasian Region by the Russian science // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2015, Vol. (15), Is. 2, pp. 93-99. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1437485438.pdf

Abstract:
The article describes little-known materials for the study of the North Caucasian region by the Russian science. It is proved that the merit of Russian scientists was organized and thorough study of indigenous peoples under the direct influence of science. Their activities largely contributed to the establishment in the Russian society objective view of mountain ethnic groups, their history and culture. The author comes to the conclusion that due to the activity of Russian scientists began the study of their homeland by local educators, which was crucial for the development of the culture of the mountain people.

Keywords:
mountain peoples, caucasus ethnic groups, North Caucasus region, Russian science, russian scientists, educational heritage.

Literature Quotes:
Russian science // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2015, Vol. (15), Is. 2, pp. 93-99.
Number of views: 245      Download in PDF


14.
2015.03.064. Cherkasov A., Krinko E., Smigel M. Ukrainian Nationalism during World War II: Its nature and manifestations // Rusin, 2015, Vol. (40), Is. 2. pp. 98-117. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1265&article_id=22741

Abstract:
This article examines the nature and manifestations of Ukrainian nationalism during World War II. The authors dwell upon the making of the nationalist movement in emigration, and later across Ukraine. The authors come to the conclusion that, in its essence, Ukrainian nationalism was a social-political movement oriented towards the expression, protection, and actualization of the interests of the Ukrainian people. The creation of a Ukrainian nationalist state was seen as the primary means for resolving the above objectives. At the same time, the struggle for its creation began amid the unconcluded process of the formation of the Ukrainian nation. Worthy of note is also the relatively late emergence of political organizations pretending to the expression, as well as localization, of national interests mainly in Western Ukraine and, above all, in Halychyna, a region that had long been part of Poland and Austro-Hungary, which facilitated the entrenchment of anti-Russian sentiments in the latter. By the beginning of World War II, the influence of the Halychynans in the Ukrainian national movement had grown, while the national leaders who had stayed in the USSR were no longer active or were subjected to repressions. The leading positions in the Ukrainian nationalist movement came to be firmly occupied by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), although it was split into several factions within itself, which nevertheless shared the common sentiment of not just Ukrainophilia, but of Rusophobia and Anti-Sovietism, a sentiment largely exacerbated under the influence of a close partnership with the German Nazis. As a result, during the war the most widespread were the radical, more aggressive, manifestations of Ukrainian nationalism, which were accompanied by extreme forms of discrimination against representatives of other ethnicities, going as far as their physical extermination: the Russians, Jews, and Poles. Later on, hatred would be aimed at representatives of their "own" ethnicity deemed to oppose a specific faction within the OUN. Cruel terror attacks would be carried out against residents of Ukraine's both eastern and western regions – communists and Komsomol members, party officials and Soviet activists. By the same token, the OUN movement would be suppressed via mass repressions by homeland security agencies. The events of World War II and its aftermath resulted in serious trauma for many residents of Ukraine and may be viewed as having had an impact on the development of the present-day crisis in Ukraine.

Keywords:
A. Mel'nik, S. Bandera, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), World War II, Ukrainian nationalism.

Literature Quotes:
Cherkasov A., Krinko E., Smigel M. Ukrainian Nationalism during World War II: Its nature and manifestations // Rusin, 2015, Vol. (40), Is. 2. pp. 98-117.
Number of views: 251      Download in PDF


15.
2015.03.065. Nesterenko V. The German occupants' policy in the sphere of providing the population with the first needthings (on the example of the regions of the military zone in Ukraine in 1941-1943) // Rusin. 2015. № 2 (40). pp. 133-147. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1265&article_id=22743

Abstract:
During the stage of Germany's planning to attack USSR a great attention was paid to Ukraine. It had to become an agrarian and raw material base for the Third Reich, a sales market for German industrial products. During the period of war it had to be turned into the main depot for Wehrmacht. Thereupon the Nazi leadership had several approaches to carrying out the occupation policy. But the military operations progress made the Germans reconsider their original plans. By means of "auxiliary bodies" that consisted of the representatives of the local population they rebuilt industrial enterprises and necessary infrastructural facilities in Ukraine. In most cases those local bodies (district and city councils (boards)) exactly were interested in providing the population with jobs and means of subsistence and turned out to be the initiators for rebuilding factories and plants. One of the ways for solving that problem was the renewal of craftsmen activity. The supreme goals of military-economic investment were maintaining the growing needs of Wehrmacht. But they subordinated the process of rebuilding enterprises and regulated craftsmen activities. As a result all output (production) was used to perform that task. The results of the following policy were disastrous shortage of foodstuffs and first need things, the processes of deurbanization as far as the population of such large cities as Kharkiv, Stalino, Sumy, Voroshilovgrad was doomed to suffer from starvation and tried to move to rural areas. The criticism by the military administration officials who shared A.Rozenberg's ideas on "more lenient" occupation policy in Ukraine did not change the situation in general.

Keywords:
: military zone of Ukraine, maintenance, population, industry, craftsmanship, auxiliary bodies, occupation regime

Literature Quotes:
Nesterenko V. The German occupants' policy in the sphere of providing the population with the first needthings (on the example of the regions of the military zone in Ukraine in 1941-1943) // Rusin. 2015. № 2 (40). pp. 133-147.
Number of views: 241      Download in PDF


16.
2015.03.066. Nazaria S., Polivtsev V. The Yassy-Kishinev Military Strategies – the most brilliant offensive operation of WWII and its Interpretation in current Rumanian historiography // Rusin. 2015. № 2 (40). pp. 227-240. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1265&article_id=22748

Abstract:
One of the most important tasks that set itself the highest Soviet military and political leadership in the summer of 1944, was the defeat of the German-Romanian Army Group "Southern Ukraine" and the liberation of Soviet Moldova and a number of countries located on the lower reaches of the great European river Danube. In this context, it should be recalled that since its inception, Moldovans and Rusyns in XlV-th century, Moldova has always been a multi-ethnic state. Based on this postulate, it should be clear conclusion that the Jassy-Kishinev Offensive was in the truest sense of the word salvation for the Moldovan people and its statehood.

Keywords:
environment, defeat, offensive, Army Group

Literature Quotes:
Nazaria S., Polivtsev V. The Yassy-Kishinev Military Strategies – the most brilliant offensive operation of WWII and its Interpretation in current Rumanian historiography // Rusin. 2015. № 2 (40). pp. 227-240.
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


17.
2015.03.067. Perri Giuseppe. The Prologue to the Narcissus of Hryhorii Skovoroda as a Philosophical Testament // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2015. №2. pp. 83-98. Code http://kmhj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/51026/46949

Abstract:
The article points out the composition and publication of the dialogue Narcissus and its Prologue, why the figure of Narcissus is for Skovoroda so unusually positive and why it is connected to the theme of “know thyself.” The article also draws an unprecedented parallelism between the “sacred narcissism” of Skovoroda and the “heroic frenzies” of Giordano Bruno. The theoretical meaning of the Narcissus’ figure in Skovoroda’s philosophy is the link between epistemological idealism, self-love (which is a strong ethical and personal commitment, a love of own character and fate) and deification. From the ontological point of view, it is suggested that Skovoroda’s ontology is a Christian Plutarchism: a transformation (by Platonizing and Christianizing it) of the Stoic individual hegemonic into an ability to grasp the invisible divine, in a perspective close to St. Augustine. Finally, we find, in Skovoroda’s philosophical testament, an original synthesis of Latin culture and humanism with modernism and Hesychasm’s spirituality.

Keywords:
Narcissus, know thyself, heroic frenzies, Plutarchism and Stoicism in Skovoroda, Skovoroda and Bruno.

Literature Quotes:
Perri Giuseppe. The Prologue to the Narcissus of Hryhorii Skovoroda as a Philosophical Testament // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2015. №2. pp. 83-98.
Number of views: 250      Download in PDF


18.
2015.03.068. Gaidai Oleksandra. Memoralization of Lenin: Legislation and Attitudes (On the Materials of Kyiv, Vinnytsia and Cherkasy Regions) // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2015. №2. pp. 137-154. Code http://kmhj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/51031/46952

Abstract:
Despite more than 20 years of independence, Ukraine’s former political system has not vanished, as it had created and left behind immense material and cultural resources. The new, often weaker system is not able to obliterate or eliminate signs of the past completely. Thus, cleansing or preserving a landscape feature is an act of historical politics and represents national needs and expectations. In this context, the main question is how do Ukrainian authorities incorporate the Soviet heritage, in our case political monuments, into the cultural and public space of modern Ukraine? The present research scrutinizes the politics of memory towards the Soviet past in contemporary Ukraine. It looks at policies towards Soviet heritage in political monumental art at the governmental and local levels in central Ukraine. The article analyses official documents on Soviet heritage in Ukraine, the conditions of its enactment and the specifics of implementation. Secondly, the research investigates the activities of local authorities in protecting or demounting Soviet monuments. Finally, the analysis examines the attitudes of the population, which include both actions and views. The “ground” level analysis helps us to avoid misleading generalizations in the field of historical politics and discloses the way that politics of memory is perceived and shared among the population.

Keywords:
monument, politics of memory, Lenin, heritage, central Ukraine.

Literature Quotes:
Gaidai Oleksandra. Memoralization of Lenin: Legislation and Attitudes (On the Materials of Kyiv, Vinnytsia and Cherkasy Regions) // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2015. №2. pp. 137-154.
Number of views: 236      Download in PDF


19.
2015.03.069. Krinko E.F. Images of the Family in Stalingrad Children's Memories // Russkaya Starina, 2015, Vol.(15), Is. 3, pp.168-179. Code http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1444337145.pdf

Abstract:
There is a large number of studies on the Battle of Stalingrad. However, the fate of the Stalingrad children is not analyzed enough. The paper conveys the image of a family in memory of the children of Stalingrad. This research is based on the results of the survey conducted in 2014- 2015 among Volgograd inhabitants, witnesses of the Battle of Stalingrad in childhood and adolescence. The family largely determined the fate of the Stalingrad children. The structure and composition of the family have been changed. During the Battle of Stalingrad adult care, firstly care for children by the parents, became the main condition of their survival. The life perception peculiarities significantly influence the memoirs of a certain person. The childhood as a rule is idealized as compared with the events of adult life.

Keywords:
Great Patriotic War, Stalingrad, wartime childhood, family, memories, oral history.

Literature Quotes:
Krinko E.F. Images of the Family in Stalingrad Children's Memories // Russkaya Starina, 2015, Vol.(15), Is. 3, pp. 168-179.
Number of views: 247      Download in PDF


20.
2015.03.070. Grom O.A. The Language, History and Nation in the Visions of Bessarabian Moldavian Intellectuals in the Early 20th Century // Russkii Arkhiv, 2015, Vol. (9), Is. 3, pp. 177-192. Code http://ejournal16.com/journals_n/1445339343.pdf

Abstract:
The articles of Bessarabian intellectuals from the Moldavian press of the early 20th century are published in Russian for the first time. The texts deal with the issues of language, history and national identity of Bessarabian Moldavians or Romanians, as they were treated by the authors. The publication may be useful for the comparative analysis of the national movements in the Russian Empire.

Keywords:
nationalism, national identity, history, Bessarabia, Moldavians, Romanians.

Literature Quotes:
Grom O.A. The Language, History and Nation in the Visions of Bessarabian Moldavian Intellectuals in the Early 20th Century // Russkii Arkhiv, 2015, Vol. (9), Is. 3, pp. 177-192.
Number of views: 250      Download in PDF


21.
2015.03.071. Firsov I.F. “…This Is the Hellish Plan of the Counterrevolutionary Adventure Strictly Designed in Advance...”: Activities of the Tyumen Bolsheviks in the Fight Against Crime in the City and County during the Rebellion of the Czechoslovak Corps // Russkii Arkhiv, 2015, Vol. (9), Is. 3, pp. 193-203. Code http://ejournal16.com/journals_n/1445339419.pdf

Abstract:
The publication presents the papers depicting a short period of activity in Tobolsk (Tyumen) province of the Bolshevik government before the seizure of power in the region by the White troops. Law enforcement agencies and the police only began to be established, and the revolutionary organizations (Military Operational Headquarters, Board for the Protection of Tyumen and Approaches to It, the Commandant of the City for the Protection of the Revolution) have taken responsibility for fighting crime and maintaining order in the city and the county.

Keywords:
mutiny of the Czechoslovak corps, Bolsheviks, police, Tobolsk province, Сivil war.

Literature Quotes:
Firsov I.F. “…This Is the Hellish Plan of the Counterrevolutionary Adventure Strictly Designed in Advance...”: Activities of the Tyumen Bolsheviks in the Fight Against Crime in the City and County during the Rebellion of the Czechoslovak Corps // Russkii Arkhiv, 2015, Vol. (9), Is. 3, pp. 193-203.
Number of views: 246      Download in PDF


22.
2015.03.072. Filipović Vojislav. Scythian Influences in the Central Balkan Region in the Early Iron Age // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №3.pp.89-97. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/Katalog/Arheologia/STM_DWL_y5Kf_5OqOolf9XpPo.aspx

Abstract:
There are not many objects in the Central Balkan area that could point to the Scythian influences during 6th and 4th century BC. Bronze arrowheads are the most frequent type of objects of Scythian origin in this area, and it seems that they appear at the end of the 7th century BC. Till nowadays, we registered around 100 arrowheads of this type. We have only 3 bronze zoomorphic-formed decorative plates that indicate Pontic origin and eastern provenience, but unlike arows and horse-bits, all of them point to 5th and early 4th century BC. Horse-bits and snaffles appear in the central Balkan region very early, at the end of 7th century BC, and we can connect them with the Szentes-Verkerzug type of horse-bits with zoomorphic ends. After that, horse-bits of the later Szentes-Verkerzug type still appear in this region, during the 6th and 5th century BC. Their appearance could be connected with the middle Danube and Tisza basins. Later horse-bits are connected with the eastern influences and the lower Danube region as well as the Black Sea, and they point to 5 th century BC.

Keywords:
Central Balkan, Iron Age, Scythian Period, Arrowheads, Bronze Plaques, Horse-Bits.

Literature Quotes:
Filipović Vojislav. Scythian Influences in the Central Balkan Region in the Early Iron Age // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №3.pp.89-97.
Number of views: 253      Download in PDF


23.
2015.03.073. Papanova Valentina, Lyashko Svetlana. Olbian Chora''s Suburban Homesteads of the 5th-4th Centuries BC (the results of the excavations of 2003-2013 years) // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №3.pp.223-249. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/Katalog/Arheologia/STM_DWL_AyVv_IXkFRpEAz5w1.aspx

Abstract:
At the beginning of this century, two personal homesteads of οἴκος and χωρίον type were excavated and examined to the south of Olbia: Shyroka Balka 6 and Shyroka Balka 7. Prior to their discovery, there were known only two homesteads, situated to the south of the fort – Shyroka Balka 1 and Shyroka Balka 5. Both homesteads are characterized by two periods of existence: 1) semi-dugout houses period and 2) period associated with the construction of ground-based premises on stone pedestals with adobe and stone and adobe walls. When constructing ground-based premises on homesteads, the same construction techniques were used. There were discovered semi-dugouts and ground-based premises of rare design. The sites yielded numerous materials, allowing to define the period of homesteads’ functioning and get an idea about occupations and outlook of their inhabitants. The existence of personal homestead Shyroka Balka 6 refers to the second third of the 5th century – the beginning of the 3rd century BC, and chorion Shyroka Balka 7 refers to the end of the 5th century – 30s years of the 4th century BC.

Keywords:
Olbia, Estate, Masonry, Ceramics, Coins, Chora, Semi-Dugouts Premises, Ground-Based Premises.

Literature Quotes:
Papanova Valentina, Lyashko Svetlana. Olbian Chora''s Suburban Homesteads of the 5th-4th Centuries BC (the results of the excavations of 2003-2013 years) // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №3.pp.223-249.
Number of views: 247      Download in PDF


24.
2015.03.074. Caban Peter. The Early Ancient Christian Inscriptions In The Christian Epigraphy // European Journal of Science and Theology, 2015, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 21-30. Code http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/52/3_Caban.pdf

Abstract:
Christian epigraphy is the science about Christian inscriptions which existed in the ancient world. It studies the inscriptions of monumental nature, i.e. all the inscriptions and texts which were written on solid material. As the historical discipline it studies the inscriptions in all their cultural and historical contexts. It makes the inscriptions available for further scientific research. The Christian epigraphy studies the inscriptions in the West until the time of Caroline renaissance and in the East until the time of iconoclasm. Christian epigraphy studies the external form of inscriptions and their arrangement because the ancient written expression was an important source for other scientific disciplines such as Palaeography, Orthography, Linguistics, development of Latin and Greek languages (κοινή – koiné) and for morphology of late classic languages. Christian epigraphy studies not only a form but also the contents of the ancient Christian inscriptions and texts and it enables to look at the private and public life of first Christians. Ancient Christian inscriptions enable us to understand the inner Church organization, its legal norms, liturgy and artistic expressions of first Christians but chiefly the dogmatic truths of the early Church.

Keywords:
inscriptions, Christian epigraphy, life, Christians, Christian archaeology.

Literature Quotes:
Caban Peter. The Early Ancient Christian Inscriptions In The Christian Epigraphy // European Journal ofScience and Theology, 2015, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 21-30.
Number of views: 249      Download in PDF


25.
2015.03.075. Glukhov V.V., Zhilina E.V., Ponomareva O.Ya. The Role And Importance Of Private Entrepreneurship In Russia For The Period Up To 1917 As A Vector Of The Formation Of The Modern Middle Class // European Journal of Science and Theology, 2015, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 45-60. Code http://www.ejst.tuiasi.ro/Files/52/5_Glukhov%20et%20al.pdf

Abstract:
During the twentieth – beginning of the twenty-first century changes in the economic life of Russia were accompanied by the modernization of formal and informal rights in the acquisition and protection of property rights. The way how successful the existing economic institutions coordinated the behaviour of the owners depended on the ideology, the complexity of the socio-economic situation in the country, the forms and extent of entrepreneurship (individual, cooperative entrepreneurship), etc. The origins of private entrepreneurship in Russia originated primarily in trade and merchantry, which could occur only in those socio-economic structures of the mixed economy of preMongol Rus, based on resources and free labour, as well on professional traders and artisans-manufacturers – typical members of the middle class. The relevance of the study is conditioned by the revival of the market relations in Russia that entail the development of the middle class, entrepreneurship, private property and initiative. Thus particular importance is centred on the formation of a compelling market economy model of the middle class of private entrepreneurs who are due to their number the main driving force and support for institutional reforms in the developed countries.

Keywords:
private, entrepreneurship, middle class, merchantry, private finances.

Literature Quotes:
Glukhov V.V., Zhilina E.V., Ponomareva O.Ya. The Role And Importance Of Private Entrepreneurship In Russia For The Period Up To 1917 As A Vector Of The Formation Of The Modern Middle Class // European Journal of Science and Theology, 2015, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 45-60.
Number of views: 243      Download in PDF


26.
Information
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27.
full number
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© 2015, Refereed Journal: History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin