History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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4 October 25, 2015


1.
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2.
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3.
2015.04.076. Pryn M., Pryn O., Degtyarev S. Correspondence Between the Academician Evgeny Fedorov and Tsou Yi-Hsin: Materials to the Historyof Latitude Investigations // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2015. № XXV. Pp. 33-41. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/25_2015/5-Pryn_Degtya.pdf

Abstract:
Setting a high value on such component of historical studies as the history of science the authors refer to the history of astronomical surveys development. In current paper special attention is given to the establishment and development of scientific institutions in the sphere of latitude observations. Particularly, the activity of Poltava Gravimetric Observatory, which was established in 1926 and played a role of fundamental gravimetric post connected to the world gravimetric network, is covered separately. The correspondence between astronomical scientists could be used as a valuable source for studying latitude investigations in the 20s century. In this work we present the texts of nine letter written in English, which are a part of correspondence between Ukrainian Soviet astronomical scientist E.P. Fedorov and Chinese scientist Tsou Yi-Hsin. The correspondence took place from 1957 to 1965 and ended up with the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in China in 1966-1976. Letters presented in the article contain information concerning the training of Chinese astronomers in the Soviet Union and establishment of latitude observations in China.

Keywords:
E.P. Fedorov, Tsou Yi-Hsin, Ukraine, People’s Republic of China, Soviet Union, USSR, International Astronomical Union, International Latitude Service, Poltava Gravimetric Observatory.

Literature Quotes:
Pryn M., Pryn O., Degtyarev S. Correspondence Between the Academician Evgeny Fedorov and Tsou Yi-Hsin: Materials to the Historyof Latitude Investigations // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2015. № XXV. Pp. 33-41.
Number of views: 258      Download in PDF


4.
2015.04.077. Vlasenko V. Conservative Hetman Environment of the Interwar Ukrainian Emigration in the Southest Europe (1918-1939) // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2015. № XXV. Pp. 56-67. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/25_2015/7-Vlasenko.pdf

Abstract:
The work highlights the issues of formation and development of conservative Hetman environment in the Southeast Europe. The peculiarity of Ukrainian political emigration in this region consisted in the fact that it arrived in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia as a part of the White armies of A. Denikin and P. Wrangel, and it arrived in Romania as part of the Army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Ukrainian partisan-rebel troops. Peripheral migration centers were established in the first two countries, emigration in Romania occupied an intermediate position between political centers and peripheral centers. In 1920s, national democratic environment was the most numerous and active among Ukrainian emigration in these countries, as well as radical-nationalist environment in 1930s. Interim place was occupied by conservative Hetman environment. It was represented by two political organizations – Ukrainian Union of State Grain Growers headed by V. Lypynsky and P. Skoropadsky and the Ukrainian National Cossack Society headed by I. PoltavetsOstryanytsia. The Union did not establish its party branches in the region, but it carried out its public social and political activities through public organizations – Ukrainian Union of State Grain Growers and the Ukrainian community in Bucharest and the Ukrainian Union of State Grain Growers in Serbia. There have been attempts to take on leadership in central emigration organizations – Ukrainian association “Prosvita” in Belgrade and the Union of Ukrainian organizations in Yugoslavia, as well as Public-Assisting Committee in Romania, but they failed. National Ukrainian Cossack Association opened in Bulgaria its legal branch. It initiated the establishment of Ukrainian Cultural Association in Bulgaria, which was fighting for the influence over Ukrainian emigration with the Ukrainian community in Bulgaria. Branch leaders were members of the council of the Union of Ukrainian organizations in Bulgaria. In the early 1930s, the branch initiated the dismissal of I. Poltavets-Ostryanytsia from the leadership. Since the middle of 1930s, conservative Hetman environment shifted its orientation on the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. In the late 1930s, conservative Hetman environment was gradually losing its position among Ukrainian emigration in Southeast Europe, and the radical nationalist environment started strengthening its role.

Keywords:
Bulgaria, emigration, monarchist movement, political environment, Romania, Yugoslavia.

Literature Quotes:
Vlasenko V. Conservative Hetman Environment of the Interwar Ukrainian Emigration in the Southest Europe (1918-1939) // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2015. № XXV. Pp. 56-67.
Number of views: 252      Download in PDF


5.
2015.04.079. Olga V. Natolochnaya, Lyudmila G. Zimovets, Nina I. Kryukova. Christianity on the Territory of the Russian Black Sea Region (in the VIII-XVth centuries): Historical and Archaeological Aspects // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 779-785. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1449043788.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the historical and cultural heritage of the territory of the Greater Sochi in the medieval period. The attention is paid to the Christian Orthodox churches and their archaeological study. This article utilizes the records of archaeological expeditions, monographic literature and periodicals. In conclusion the authors note that 9 temples were built on the territory of the Sochi region in the middle ages. In the IX–XII centuries the temples have a cross-domed type of building. Later there were built the singledomed churches, which were distinguished by the proportions, the elegance of form, and the compactness of the internal space. The cross-domed churches were built of slabs of sandstone and shale. The technology of masonry walls was typical for provincial Byzantine churches. The masonry mortar was not destroyed and weathering in the humid subtropical climate.

Keywords:
the Black Sea Region, Christianity, the Middle Ages, the local history, temples.

Literature Quotes:
Olga V. Natolochnaya, Lyudmila G. Zimovets, Nina I. Kryukova. Christianity on the Territory of the Russian Black Sea Region (in the VIII-XVth centuries): Historical and Archaeological Aspects // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 779-785.
Number of views: 253      Download in PDF


6.
2015.04.080. Sergey G. Bocharov. Genoese Domain in the Crimea (the Second Half of 14th century) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 808-824. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1449043893.pdf

Abstract:
The article describes the domain of the Genoese republic in the Crimea in the middle of the 14th century. During this period, the Genoese possessions in the northern Black Sea region consist of one major city Caffa. In the second half of 14th century in the city was reaches the highest point of development. During the second half of the 14th - the first half of 15th centuries Caffa played a leading role in marchand and political life of the Black Sea region. After 1365 the administration of Caffa passes from the defense to the captures of the land previously depending from the Golden Horde. As a result, creates a new political entity on the Crimean Black Sea coast - a system of cities, castles and villages, subject to Genoa, called the Genoesе Gazaria and covered the all coastline including the settlement of the South Coast of Crimea, Soldaya (Sudak), Cembalo (Balaclava) and Vosporo (Bosporus, Kerch).

Keywords:
Genoa; Caffa; the Golden Horde; the historical topography; Genoese Gazaria; Crimea in the Middle Ages.

Literature Quotes:
Sergey G. Bocharov. Genoese Domain in the Crimea (the Second Half of 14th century) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 808-824.
Number of views: 254      Download in PDF


7.
2015.04.081. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Mikhal Shmigel, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Violetta S. Molchanova. Jikis and Jiketi in Conditions of War and Peace (1840–1860 years) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 888-893. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1449044147.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the facts and events related to the problems of mutual relations of the Russian administration in the Caucasus with a Circassian tribe of jikis. The article utilizes the archival documents of the Chief of the Black Sea coastline, stored in the State archive of the Krasnodar region (Krasnodar, Russian Federation). The paper presents the materials on relationship of jikis princes (4 main families: Aridbaevy, Gechi, Tsanbaevy, Anchebadze) between themselves and with the Russian military administration. The negotiations that occurred in the early 1840s, led to the fact that the Prince Jikis family Anchebadze handed the Amanat and many of its representatives, together with subjected peasants moved to Eastern Abkhazia. Later the jikis from Anchebadze family owned the villages of Achandara, Guma, Labra, Chilou and Tkvarchal. The negotiations with others jikis princely families failed in the 1840s. In general, the situation in Jiketi was stable, that is why the Russian administration was established the position of Jiketi Police Officer. By the middle of 1860, some representatives of the princely jikis families remained in the district of Gagra. The author comes to the conclusion that the dialogue between the jikis and the Russian administration received a new development by the cooperative initiatives of the highlanders. The situation in the conditions of ongoing Caucasian war, the external influence, positions of the different mountain societies, subjective factors – the lack of coherence and discords of the separate princely families, ultimately have not given the desired results in which the collaborating parties were objectively interested.

Keywords:
Jikis, Jiketi, Caucasian war, Michael Shervashidze, Anchebadze princes.

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Mikhal Shmigel, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Violetta S. Molchanova. Jikis and Jiketi in Conditions of War and Peace (1840–1860 years) // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 888-893.
Number of views: 257      Download in PDF


8.
2015.04.082. Sergey I. Degtyarev. Public and State Significance The Ranks of the Table of Ranks in the Russian Empire at the End of XVIII – the First Half of the XIX Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 865-875. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1449044078.pdf

Abstract:
The article reveals the problem of social and political values of ranks that rewards civil servants of the Russian Empire in the late 18th century - the first half of the 19th century. Were determined service and social benefits of officials after rewarding their ranks. Investigated the conditions of obtaining ranks, the impact of ranks to the development of the bureaucratic system of the Russian Empire. The author concludes that the ranks were an important element of the bureaucratic system of the Russian Empire. The highest value of ranks have shown at the end of 18th - the first half of the 19th century. At that time, ranks were a attribute of official and social status of the official, and was an instrument of the national and unifikation policy of Russian government.

Keywords:
ХVIII century, XIX century, Russian Empire, national regions, the civil service, an official, rank, Table of Ranks.

Literature Quotes:
Sergey I. Degtyarev. Public and State Significance The Ranks of the Table of Ranks in the Russian Empire at the End of XVIII – the First Half of the XIX Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2015. № 4 (38). Pp. 865-875.
Number of views: 260      Download in PDF


9.
2015.04.083. Volodimir A. Gnera. Advantage of using quadrocopters, for aero photo ancient of Old Rus towns // Gardarika. 2015. Vol. (5). Is. 4. Pp. 133-144. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1449514136.pdf

Abstract:
This article consideres opportunity to use remotely piloted aircraft (quadrocoptera) for аncient of Old Rus towns in current urban. It explores technical and functional advantages settings remotely piloted aircraft to followed using for air photography, and change to crated ortophotoplan and digital model of relief. The article based on the example of aerosedan cultural heritage discusses the usefulness of the application of the quadrocopter.

Keywords:
air photography, town, SRPA (smaller remotely piloted aircraft), quadrocopter, orthophotoplan, aerial survey, monitoring, non-destructive method, museumfication.

Literature Quotes:
Volodimir A. Gnera. Advantage of using quadrocopters, for aero photo ancient of Old Rus towns // Gardarika. 2015. Vol. (5). Is. 4. Pp. 133-144.
Number of views: 254      Download in PDF


10.
2015.04.084. Alexis A. Streltsov. Qualitative analysis of the impact of education on the secondary school (gymnasia) leavers’ professional and civilian formation in the Russian empire in the XIX –early XX centuries: a territorial and temporal aspect // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2015. Vol.(6). Is. 4. Pp. 189-196. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1450805296.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the non-private classical secondary education in the Russian empire (autonomous domains excluded). About 2200 profiles on the Russian version of the Open Encyclopedia are analysed. They were divided according to the spheres: philology and literature, arts and social sciences, sciences and technology, fine arts, public service, military service, revolution, clergy, commerce, medicine, as well as regions: St. Petersburg and its province, Moscow and its province, other Russian provinces, the Ukraine, etc. The author shows that there is no direct correspondence between the type of secondary education and its influence on the school-leavers’ choice of profession or career, although the region and the period could have their effect. The policy of the ministry was on the whole less significant, than the political and social situation in the country, the educational process in a particular school and personal preferences of schoolleavers.

Keywords:
Russia, classical education, gymnasia, school-leavers.

Literature Quotes:
Alexis A. Streltsov. Qualitative analysis of the impact of education on the secondary school (gymnasia) leavers’ professional and civilian formation in the Russian empire in the XIX –early XX centuries: a territorial and temporal aspect // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2015. Vol.(6). Is. 4. Pp. 189-196.
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


11.
2015.04.085. Nadezhda G. Valeeva. Formation of library education in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the 1930-s // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2015. Vol.(6). Is. 4. Pp. 262-274. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1450805813.pdf

Abstract:
Formation of library education in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1930-s was investigated on the example of the opening and functioning of Yelabuga’s library college in the context of historical events in the cultural and educational sector. This fact has strengthened the scientific value of the article, its results and conclusions. Due attention is given by the author to the peculiarities and difficulties in the educational process, staffing and acquisition of educational groups.

Keywords:
Yelabuga’s library college; personnel training; network of libraries; 1930-s; publication of textbooks and manuals.

Literature Quotes:
Nadezhda G. Valeeva. Formation of library education in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the 1930-s // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2015. Vol.(6). Is. 4. Pp. 262-274.
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


12.
2015.04.086. Konstantin V. Taran. Propaganda Activities of Socialist Revolutionaries of the Black Sea Province in 1905 // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2015. Vol. (3). Is. 1. Pp. 4-13. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1472845652.pdf

Abstract:
The article on the basis of extensive archival material is considered the propaganda activity of members of the party of social revolutionaries on the territory of the Black sea province during the First Russian revolution. Among the sources there are used the archival materials from the central, regional and local russian archives. The authors used the general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization), and traditional methods of historical analysis. The historical-anthropological approach helped to identify the methods and forms of SRS’ propaganda. In conclusion the author states that during the First Russian revolution the socialist revolutionaries actively used the printed materials (program of the party, leaflets, proclamations, etc.) of the party and spread it among the population of the Black sea province. Another form of outreach activities were the meetings and demonstrations. In the end, the agitation and propaganda contributed to the increase in supporters of the socialist-revolutionaries among the intellectuals, workers, rural residents, students and representatives of different nationalities.

Keywords:
agitation, propaganda, SRs, Social-Revolutionaries, Black Sea Province, 1905.

Literature Quotes:
Konstantin V. Taran. Propaganda Activities of Socialist Revolutionaries of the Black Sea Province in 1905 // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2015. Vol. (3). Is. 1. Pp. 4-13.
Number of views: 253      Download in PDF


13.
2015.04.087. Susanna D. Bagdasaryan. Material Culture of the Southern Russian Peasants in the 1920th years: Condition of Housing // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2015. Vol. (6). Is. 4. Pp. 188-196. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1451482230.pdf

Abstract:
The natural and geographical conditions significantly differing in these or those regions of so extensive country as Russia, already from an extreme antiquity had the defining impact on receptions of a house building and typology of the Russian housing. As the famous expert on the Russian village wrote, the academician L.V. Milov, a construction stone in the country was very little and "in the conditions of severe and long winter the stone structure would demand so large number of firewood that to prepare it to the peasant, using only one axe" (hand saws began to get occasionally into life of the Russian village only approximately in the second half of the XVIII century)" was beyond the power simply". The only alternative to a stone in the sphere of a house building there was a tree. [1] But if the told fairly concerning the central and northern territories of Russia rich with the wood, the southern regions of our country couldn't be called woody in any way and therefore the most widespread construction materials here long since were clay, poles, brushwood, a cane.

Keywords:
material culture; house building; rural inhabited construction; dwelling; hut.

Literature Quotes:
Susanna D. Bagdasaryan. Material Culture of the Southern Russian Peasants in the 1920th years: Condition of Housing // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2015. Vol. (6). Is. 4. Pp. 188-196.
Number of views: 245      Download in PDF


14.
2015.04.088. Salmin Sergey. «Gosty» in the Social System of the Ancient Rus»: Public Servants? // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №6. Pp. 43-52. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Numismatics/STM_DWL_K83h_VzR7ccgIv1ix.aspx

Abstract:
The article deals with the history of the term gosty ('guest') during the whole period of its existence (the 9th-17th centuries). Basing on the information analyzed, the author affirms that contrary to the prevailing historiographical tradition, the term did not change its meaning throughout the considered time period. As early as in the 9th-10th centuries “guests” were business representatives and trade and fiscal agents of the government and high-ranking individuals, as was reflected in the application of the Byzantine term “πραγματευτής” to the term “guest” (Constantini Porphyrogeniti imperatoris. De Ceremoniis aulae Byzantinae). The choice of the sixteenth century as the turning point when the “guests” ceased to be mostly merchants and became fiscal agents of the government seems erroneous. The mistake should be most probably associated with an incorrect translation of sources, when the perception of the synonymous usage of the words “guest” and “merchant” had led to the distorted meaning of the text.

Keywords:
Ancient Russian state, Byzantium, foreign trade, diplomatic relations, “guest”, merchant, πραγματευτής, a business representative.

Literature Quotes:
Salmin Sergey. «Gosty» in the Social System of the Ancient Rus»: Public Servants? // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №3. Pp. 43-52.
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


15.
2015.04.089. Maiorov A.V. Illustri regi Russiae: The royal title of russian princes in the first half of the 13th century // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №6. Pp. 53-61. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Numismatics/STM_DWL_h3ec_eUEGreB2DHSK.aspx

Abstract:
A study of written accounts allowed the author to conclude that 1230s Western European official documents invariably title the Glaician-Volhynian Knyaz Daniel Romanovich as ‘the King of Rus’” Noteworthy, his title was recognized by the Pope and the German Emperor. Thus, both supreme institutions of the Western Christian world, invested with the right to award royal titles to secular rulers, not only recognized this title in case of the Galician-Volhynian Russian Knyaz, but also, undoubtedly, considered him to be the first King of All Rus’ among other rulers of independent Russian lands and towns. Earlier, the Western Europe recognized this title only after the Grand Kievan Knyazes Vladimir the Holy, Yaroslav the Wise and their closest descendants.

Keywords:
Galician-Volhynian principality, prince Daniel Romanovich, King of Rus’, Roman Church, dynastic ties.

Literature Quotes:
Maiorov A.V. Illustri regi Russiae: The royal title of russian princes in the first half of the 13th century // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №6. Pp. 53-61.
Number of views: 252      Download in PDF


16.
2015.04.090. Russev N.D., Redina E.F. A nomad's burial with byzantine coins found near katlabukh lake and development of ethno-political situation in the lower danube region in 12th century // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №6. Pp. 99-107. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Numismatics/STM_DWL_tqFT_fcfkY9VnrPaq.aspx

Abstract:
In 1970, the archaeological dig at the northern end of the Katlabukh Lake (Suvorovo village, Ismail District, Odessa Oblast, Ukraine) yielded a grave of a medieval nomad, buried in the mound of an ancient barrow; there were also a sword and remnants of horse’s limbs buried together with the nomad. This type of burials is known among the Pechenegs in 10th-11th centuries. However, thirteen Byzantine coins found near the warrior’s belt date this funeral site to a much later time. Electrum scyphati are emissions of Comnenus dynasty, who ruled between 1143 and 1195. A study of the historical evolution of the region in 11th-12th centuries suggests that the burial at Suvorovo village belongs to a representative of a small Pecheneg community wandering near the Danube’s delta, who managed to preserve their steppe life style and traditional identity. This was possible owing to ethnic ties with the right bank of the Lower Danube and Byzantium’s activities to enhance its security on the border with the nomadic world. The burial reflects participation of the steppe warriors in raids to the Balkans in late 12th century, in the midst of fight for restoration of Bulgarian Kingdom.

Keywords:
Lower Danube, Bulgarian Kingdom, Byzantine Empire, warrior’s burial, electrum coins, scyphati, nomads, Pechenegs, Torks (Uz, Ghuzz), Polovtsy (Cumans), Comnenus dynasty.

Literature Quotes:
Russev N.D., Redina E.F. A nomad's burial with byzantine coins found near katlabukh lake and development of ethno-political situation in the lower danube region in 12th century // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2015. №6. Pp. 99-107.
Number of views: 250      Download in PDF


17.
2015.04.091. Glushchenko N.A. First social organizations of Rusins in the United States of America // Rusin. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 97-106. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1356&article_id=24978

Abstract:
The process of studying the national identity of Rusins is experiencing a period of strengthening from the end of the XX century. Simultaneously with the study of the history of this ethnic group and its language and culture, the interest to the migration process of Rusin population of Carpathian Ruthenia activated. The article deals with the process of making the first Rusin “mutual aid societies” in the United States of America – Russian Orthodox Catholic Mutual Aid Society, Russian Brotherhood Organization of the United States of America, Russian Consolidated Mutual Aid Society of America. Special attention is paid to the goals and objectives of that societies, their role in the strengthening of Orthodoxy, as well as the preservation of the Rusin culture in the United States and the world.

Keywords:
Rusins, immigration, The United States of America, mutual aid society.

Literature Quotes:
Glushchenko N.A. First social organizations of Rusins in the United States of America // Rusin. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 97-106.
Number of views: 247      Download in PDF


18.
2015.04.092. Nam I.V., Naumova N.I. Rusins’ historical memory and national and political identification in 1914-1920 // Rusin. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 126-142. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1356&article_id=24980

Abstract:
The role of collective historical memory in the nation-building process and the political identification in the context of global social upheavals – the World War I and the Russian Civil War – is considered through the example of the national movement of the Rusins which developed in the acute confrontation of two national and political movements – the Ukrainophiles and the Russophiles (Muscophiles). Based on the analysis of archival materials it is shown how the political elite of the Rusins movement, oriented towards Russia, used the discourse of historical memory (the all-Russian historical past) for the purpose of “reunification” of Carpathian Rus with the ‘bearer of all-Russian values’ – Russia. In the case of a successful accomplishment of that goal, the result could have been the transformation of the Rusins movement into a local version of an all-Russian political nation – one of the possible, yet unrealized prospects of development of the Eastern Slavic population in Galician Rus.

Keywords:
historical memory, Rusins, nation-building, political identification, First World War, Russia.

Literature Quotes:
Nam I.V., Naumova N.I. Rusins’ historical memory and national and political identification in 1914-1920 // Rusin. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 126-142.
Number of views: 251      Download in PDF


19.
2015.04.093. Duleba A., Dulebova I. The Rusin question in the historical context of the Slovak-Ukrainian relations // Rusin. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 185-204. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1356&article_id=24983

Abstract:
This article aims to explore the most important historical aspects of the Rusyn question in the context of Slovak-Ukrainian relations. It maps major points of Slovak-Rusyn relations in the past, including development of Rusyn minority in modern Slovakia. In addition, it analyses political dimension of Rusyn question in Slovak-Ukrainian relations brought by the fact that unlike Slovakia Ukraine did not recognize Rusyns as a separate national minority after it became independent state in 1992. Authors of this article argue that different approaches of Ukraine and Slovakia towards Rusyn minority living in their borderland after the regime change at the turn of 1980s and 1990s could be explained first of all by specific and mostly positive historical experience of Slovaks with Rusyns with whom they shared common past in the same state formations until 1947.

Keywords:
Rusyn question, historical context, political dimension, Rusyns in Slovakia, Slovak-Ukrainian relations.

Literature Quotes:
Duleba A., Dulebova I. The Rusin question in the historical context of the Slovak-Ukrainian relations // Rusin. 2015. № 4 (42). Pp. 185-204.
Number of views: 249      Download in PDF


20.
2015.04.094. Saроzhnykov I.V. Place of Two Fights the Cossacks and Tatars Near Ochakov (in 1690 and 1691) // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 41-51. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/44/7.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the localization locality “Peresyp” and “Domnine” (“Duminy Krynicy”) in the northern Black Sea coast, in the vicinity of which in 1690 and 1691 respectively were two clashes between the Ukrainian Cossacks and Crimean Tatars. More important was the second one in which a detachment of Cossacks led by renowned Fastiv Colonel Semen Paliy. Although this fight was known for more than 100 years ago thanks to D. Yavornytsky, his place was still not certain. Based on a detailed analysis of the written sources and cartographic materials author has determined that these geographical objects placed in the way of Ochakov - Hadzhibey, between the mouth of the Tiligulskiy lyman and right bank of the Berezan river valley.

Keywords:
Ukrainian Cossacks, Crimean Tatars, Ochakov, Hadzhibey, Tylihul lyman.

Literature Quotes:
Saроzhnykov I.V. Place of Two Fights the Cossacks and Tatars Near Ochakov (in 1690 and 1691) // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 41-51.
Number of views: 247      Download in PDF


21.
2015.04.095. Tarasova M.B. The participation of foreigners in the development of socio-economic space in the Southern Ukraine in end of the XVIII century – the 1870 century // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 57-61. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/44/9.pdf

Abstract:
The аrticle describes activity of foreigners in different life spheres of the Southern Ukraine. It was proved that involving foreigners into administrative aparatus, trade and military service was an integral part of the general concept of the Russian Impire as for the region, that was created in the end of the XVIII century. In the context of activity of the most famous foreigners such as I. Kalageorgy and K. Sen-Pri – ways of adaptation to social and economic culture-specific concepts of the region and directions of their transformation. It was shown that some of results of foreigners‟ activity are used by residents of the Southern Ukraine till the present moment.

Keywords:
foreigners, traders‟ activity, the consuls, Frenchmen, colonization of the Southern Ukrainian region, Southern Ukraine.

Literature Quotes:
Tarasova M.B. The participation of foreigners in the development of socio-economic space in the Southern Ukraine in end of the XVIII century – the 1870 century // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 57-61.
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22.
2015.04.096. Avdieieva O.S. Confessionally mixed families in the Northern Priazov’ya (the last quarter of the 18th – the beginning of the 20th cent.) // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 61-67. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/44/10.pdf

Abstract:
The article reveals the problem of confessionally mixed families in the Northern Priazov„ya. The chronology of our research is the last quarter of the 18th – the beginning of the 20th cnt. The focus is on the problem of concluding confessionally mixed marriages and the issue of proselytism in such families. Besides the main accent in our article on the features of the imperial legislation in settling marriage and family relations and its application ( or ignoring ) in practice.

Keywords:
Northern Priazov„ya, confessionally mixed families, proselytism, family relations, spouses, church, divorce.

Literature Quotes:
Avdieieva O.S. Confessionally mixed families in the Northern Priazov’ya (the last quarter of the 18th – the beginning of the 20th cent.) // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 61-67.
Number of views: 249      Download in PDF


23.
2015.04.097. Prokop Yu.V. Foreigners among Jewish merchants of Kherson province in the second half of the nineteenth century // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 75-79. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/44/13.pdf

Abstract:
The legal status and economic activity of foreign Jewish merchants in Kherson province in the second half of the nineteenth century is investigated. It is shown that foreign Jews-merchants were mostly Europeans. In spite of restrictions in their rights, they were engaged in significant foreign trade: they exported cereal products, alcohol, sugar, wool, etc., they imported manufacture and colonial goods, coal, hardware. Some of them owned factories, which brought profit to the treasury and gave employment to many locals. The activity of foreign Jewish merchants was of great importance for the economic development of the Kherson province.

Keywords:
foreigners, merchants, Jews, Kherson province.

Literature Quotes:
Prokop Yu.V. Foreigners among Jewish merchants of Kherson province in the second half of the nineteenth century // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2015. Vol. 44. Num. 1. Pp. 75-79.
Number of views: 244      Download in PDF


24.
2015.04.098. Bulut H.I. Anti-ahl al-Sunnah policies of Safevids // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2015. № 76. Pp. 15-30. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1809/1440

Abstract:
While Safavids are originally a Sunni sufi order, it has become Shiite over time and realized the process of becoming a state by taking advantage of the political turmoil in its period. Safavids, initially being a sufi-order, has gradually transformed from sheikhdom to Shahsystem. In terms of Ottoman-Safavid relations, it has a particular importance that its founding members and community were from Turkmen tribes. Beginning from Khoja Ali, Ardabillodge (Erdebil Tekkesi), which became rapidly Shi’ite, established Safavid State under the leadership of Shah Ismail and aimed to govern regions under own control by propagating Shi’a thought. These activities were not only in the Iranian region which was under Safavids’control, but also they became effective in Anatolia, where they aimed to rule over. Thus, becoming effective of Shi’ism by compelling and forced practices, it has become the dominant sect with the center of Tabriz in the Iranian region, where until 1500s the dominant sect was Sunnism. On the other hand, Safavîds focused on Shi’a propaganda to rule over Anatolia. In this context, they performed many activities in religious, economic, social and cultural fields to spread Shi’ism, apart from Safevîd-supported rebellions, such as Şahkulu and Nur Ali Halife. This article begins giving a brief account on the establishment of Safavid State and its development, the process how Shah Ismail came to power, and the relations with the Ottoman State. Then, it deals with the practices that Safavids applied during the spread of Shi’ism, such as compelling Sunnis to do some practices, inşadü’l-menakıb, Shii adhan (callforprayer), sebü’s-sahabe.

Keywords:
The Safavids, Shi’ite propaganda, Ahl al-Sunnah, Ottoman-Safavid relations, Shah Ismail.

Literature Quotes:
Bulut H.I. Anti-ahl al-Sunnah policies of Safevids // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2015. № 76. Pp. 15-30.
Number of views: 325      Download in PDF


25.
2015.04.099. Taş K. Enterance of Tunceli/Dersim to Ottoman domination and attitude of Ottoman Empire to Kizilbashs within the borders since 16th century and effect of this on Dersim // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2015. № 76. Pp. 79-108 Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1812/1443

Abstract:
This study, in the light of sources, aims to partly investigate and analyse the enterance of Dersim region into the domination of Ottoman Empire, its position in the Ottoman administrative system and the status of Turkmen tribes which were called Kizilbash, since they support Safavids in Anatolia. Dersim entered into the domination of Ottoman Empire with the Battle of Chaldiran. After establishment of State of Diyarbekir, Çemişgezek Sanjak, which today encloses the whole province of Tunceli and certain parts of Erzincan and Malatya, was connected to Diyarbekir. Sultan Selim conferred the Sanjak of Çemişgezek to Pir Hussein. After the death of Pir Hussein, the Sanjak was allocated among his sons. It can be learned who Beys of Çemişgezek were, from the archival documents and from Sharafname of Sharafeddin Khan, the Bey of Bitlis. During the reign of Sultan Selim, an incident whose consequences have not been agreed on even today occured. That is related to the number of murdered Kızılbas Turkmens. Idris-i Bitlis-i is the only person who gave information about this topic among historians who lived in that period. According to Idris-i Bitlisi, before Sultan Selim attacked Safavids, he had commanded to kill all Turkmens who supported Shah Ismail in Anatolia and were called Kizilbash. In his work, Bitlisi said that more than forty thousand people were killed. However, he did not regard Padishah as responsible for this much of death. According to him, Sultan commanded that the oppressed should not to be touched, and that the scribes should be careful. However, the beadle spilled blood with desire of having more assets and a lot of innocent people were murdered. After this incident some tribes moved to mountained regions including Dersim. By this way Turkmen population in Dersim increased.

Keywords:
Ottoman Empire, Dersim, Kizilbash, Sanjak of Çemişgezek.

Literature Quotes:
Taş K. Enterance of Tunceli/Dersim to Ottoman domination and attitude of Ottoman Empire to Kizilbashs within the borders since 16th century and effect of this on Dersim // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2015. № 76. Pp. 79-108
Number of views: 338      Download in PDF


26.
2015.04.100. Işik Z. Liquidation initiatives to Bektashism and Qizilbashism through the policies of education-culture in the Ottoman Empire (1826 and after) // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2015. № 76. Pp. 31-54. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1810/1441

Abstract:
During a period when modernization widespread in Europe and Asia, severe changes and trans-formations started to be experienced in almost every area of political, military, religious, economic and cultural life in Ottoman Empire as well. Modernization led to a process which may be called centralization and monopolization in Ottoman Empire. Ultimately, causing religious and mystical communities standing quite scattered to get together and melting them in the faith, mental and cultural world of official Islam, the state exercised the educational and cultural policies to shape up a homogenous Muslim society articulated, interlocked to each other. In fact, these long – term educational and cultural policies appear to have led to consequences more effective than activist actions which might generate tiresome and more problematic outcomes the state exercises from time to time. Here, this study has been drawn up in order to draw attention to the efforts of converting the problematic situations with the official ideology regarding Bektashi and Kizilbash environments that turned into a more marginal status in this period through said policies. It is understood that these policies were carried out in multidirectional way by the dissemination of schools, employment of scholars who served in various institutions, copyrights of the works to be employed at the schools to be newly opened and banning and recall of publications such as the books, brochures etc. reflecting belief and mental world of the related opponent environments.

Keywords:
Bektashism, Kizilbashism, Ottoman, education, liquidation.

Literature Quotes:
Işik Z. Liquidation initiatives to Bektashism and Qizilbashism through the policies of education-culture in the Ottoman Empire (1826 and after) // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2015. № 76. Pp. 31-54.
Number of views: 246      Download in PDF


© 2015, Refereed Journal: History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin