History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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1 March 23, 2016


1.
2016.01.008. Victor Y. Apryshchenko. Idea of a nation in Eastern Europe in modern times // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 83-89. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1458581512.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the process of shaping of the national identities in eastern Europe in Modern Times. The idea of a nation considers as a result and the source of mythologisation. East-european intellectual tradition of the nineteenth century resulted in the mobilisation of ethnicity aiming to protect the idea of a nation. Pointing out the elitarian and popular imaginations, the author argues that nationalism played a communicative role between a state and socity and has produced recources for nation-bulding. The role of national symbols is also considered in the paper by means of ethno-symbolic approach. The author concluded that intellectual imaginations which were based on the ethnic myths and symbols have shaped the national identity in Eastern Europe.

Keywords:
Nation, identity, myth, symbols, ethnicity, intellectuals popular imaginations.

Literature Quotes:
Victor Y. Apryshchenko. Idea of a nation in Eastern Europe in modern times // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 83-89.
Number of views: 236      Download in PDF


2.
2016.01.007. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Mikhal Shmigel, Violetta S. Molchanova. Demographic characteristics of the Aristocratic Abkhazia in 1800–1860 years // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 53-66. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1458750119.pdf

Abstract:
The article first discusses the historiography of the social class structure of the population of Abkhazia. The highlanders of Abkhazia resided in the area between the mouth of the Bzyb river to the river Ingur. In the first half of the XIX century there lived the Abkhazians, tsebeldintsy and samurzakanians inhabitants. The data on the population of the territory at a specified time are extremely contradictory, while a class population is almost not reflected. The authors have selected as sources of statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period. As a result of comparison of different sources there were calculated in the proportion of the population by social classes, namely the share of princes, nobles, free citizens, dependent inhabitants, slaves (separately for coastal and mountain societies). In addition to this there were involved the sources of personal origin – diaries, and memoirs of travelers living among the Abkhazians, as well as scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of Abkhazia seeing the presence of incomplete data, for example in determining the number of privileged castes of Abkhazia (Sukhumi area), as well as for the analysis of socio-demographic relations in determining the population of coastal and mountain Abkhazians. At the conclusion of the study, the authors provided the obtained statistical information about the total population, population by class and by gender.

Keywords:
The highlanders of Black Sea region, the Abkhaz, tsebeldintsy, samurzakanians, demography, princes, nobles, the free inhabitants, dependent residents, slaves.

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Mikhal Shmigel, Violetta S. Molchanova. Demographic characteristics of the Aristocratic Abkhazia in 1800–1860 years // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 53-66.
Number of views: 230      Download in PDF


3.
2016.01.001. Cezar Avram, Roxana Radu. Ottoman Diplomacy and the “Eastern Issue” // Journal of Humanities, Culture and Social Sciences. Vol. 2. No. 1. 2016. Pp. 55-69. Code http://www.journal.faaa.ro/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2_1_avram_radu.pdf

Abstract:
In the nineteenth century Europe there was a contrasting picture of peoples, states and empires which were not confused with territories their population live on, with the forms of political organization they had, with the religion or habits they practiced or with the language they spoke. If at the beginning of the century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control, more or less in a direct way, most of the Mediterranean space, from Algeria to Egypt, from Arabia to Asia Minor and in Europe, the Balkans. Under the impact of the nationalist current and the politics of “balance of powers”, the occupied nations have tried to release one after another from the tutelage of the Ottoman Empire. The Paris Congress of 1856 represented for the Ottoman Empire the beginning of a new reform period that would evolve into a campaign of repression against peoples who refused assimilation. As a reaction to the defeats suffered on external level and to the riots that started as a result of the increasingly intense national movements on internal level, in the Ottoman Empire emerged Turkish nationalism, a current which has campaigned against federalization and for national homogenization under the pressure of the Turkish centralism. The events in the second half of the nineteenth century have spread across Europe, prompting the development of new trends and guidance lines in the politics of the existing states and empires, and the creation of new principles and diplomatic methods.

Keywords:
Organic Regulation, Trusteeship of Civil hospitals, Health Committee, Medical Commission, Superior Medical Council.

Literature Quotes:
Cezar Avram, Roxana Radu. Ottoman Diplomacy and the “Eastern Issue” // Journal of Humanities, Culture and Social Sciences. Vol. 2. No. 1. 2016. Pp. 55-69.
Number of views: 239      Download in PDF


4.
2016.01.005. Akimov Y.G., Minkova K.V. Specificity of formation of Rusyn diaspora in the United States in the late XIX-th century // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 128-144. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1397&article_id=32338

Abstract:
First Rusin (Rusyn, Ruthenian) emigrants appeared in the Western Hemisphere in the 1860s. In the next few decades due to population outflow, Trans-Carpathian and Lemko migration overseas has steadily increased. Thousands of exhausted pauper Rusins leave «Old land» in search of a better life. Someone went to Canada, someone – to exotic Brazil, but most often they directed to the United States, where a rather big Rusin diaspora has formed by the 1890s. In this article we look at the initial stage of formation of Rusin diaspora in the United States (i.e. to the last decades of the XIX c.), analyze the specifics of the process, find out how and to what extent the Rusin diaspora was different from other ethnic diasporas of that period, what were its strengths and weaknesses. This subject is of great scientific and practical interest, given the very significant role the US Rusin diaspora played in Rusin history of the twentieth century.

Keywords:
Rusin, Rusyn, Ruthenian, diaspora, immigration, Greek Catholicism, religion, Church.

Literature Quotes:
Akimov Y.G., Minkova K.V. Specificity of formation of Rusyn diaspora in the United States in the late XIX-th century // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 128-144.
Number of views: 232      Download in PDF


5.
2016.01.006. Degtyarev S.I. Ranks (chiny) as an instrument of national and unification policy of the Russian Empire in the Left-bank Ukraine, Caucasus and Bessarabia (the end of XVIII – the first half XIX centuries) // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 177-195. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1397&article_id=32341

Abstract:
The article analyzes the role of the practice of rewarding civil servants and representatives of the elite of Left Bank Ukraine (Malorossia), Caucasus and Bessarabia, which were annexed to the Russian Empire. As a reward, in this case are considered ranks (chiny) of Table of Ranks. Particular attention is paid to substantiate the thesis that the Russian government has used these ranks as one of the mechanisms which control the assimilation of these national regions within the empire. As evidence the author cited considerable statistical and factual material.

Keywords:
Rank, Table of ranks, Russian Empire, national region, Bessarabia, Caucasus, Left-Bank Ukraine, eighteenth century, nineteenth century.

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S.I. Ranks (chiny) as an instrument of national and unification policy of the Russian Empire in the Left-bank Ukraine, Caucasus and Bessarabia (the end of XVIII – the first half XIX centuries) // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 177-195.
Number of views: 227      Download in PDF


6.
2016.01.002. Elena-Steluța Dinu. Doctor Aureliu Metzulescu and his contribution to preventing scarlet fever // Journal of Humanities, Culture and Social Sciences. Vol. 2. No. 1. 2016. Pp. 70-76. Code http://www.journal.faaa.ro/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/2_1_elena_dinu.pdf

Abstract:
By his activity, Doctor Aureliu Metzulescu (1873-1948) contributed to the development of the Romanian medical system from the first half of the 20th century. The great scientific accomplishment of Doctor Metzulescu, which brought him national and international recognition and reputation, was the introduction of certain methods of seroteraphy in the treatment of infectious diseases, i.e. scarlet fever, because he obtained remarkable results by applying them.

Keywords:
Aureliu Metzulescu, treatment, seroteraphy, scarlet fever, infectious diseases, Craiova.

Literature Quotes:
Elena-Steluța Dinu. Doctor Aureliu Metzulescu and his contribution to preventing scarlet fever // Journal of Humanities, Culture and Social Sciences. Vol. 2. No. 1. 2016. Pp. 70-76.
Number of views: 227      Download in PDF


7.
2016.01.003. Chebanenko S.B. South Rus and Subcarpathia (Southwestern Rus) in the period of Mongol invasion: problems of the newest historiography // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 81-94. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1397&article_id=32335

Abstract:
A revival of interest towards the Mongol invasion could be mentioned in the last years. In the latest researches, conserning problem of the invasion on the Southern and South-Western Rus lands, on the one hand, specialists state new thesises, based on sources, wich were not used still in the context of this problematics, on the other hand, scholars inspecting hardened beliefs, basing on new sources. Series of articles written by A.V. Mayorov, are dedicated to history of the Southern and South-Western Rus of the Mongol invasion period. Re-examined relations between south Russian princes and invaders. Ascertained directions and geographical limits of mongol drives, dates, number and position of taken towns, specifics of their assaults. Conclusions of the scholar are based on wide usage of western sources and detailed analyses of Russian Chronicles.

Keywords:
Нistoriography, mongols, Rus, Mongol invasion, South Rus, South-Western Rus, Subcarpathia.

Literature Quotes:
Chebanenko S.B. South Rus and Subcarpathia (Southwestern Rus) in the period of Mongol invasion: problems of the newest historiography // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 81-94.
Number of views: 231      Download in PDF


8.
2016.01.004. Sulyak S.G. Rusins of the Carpatho-Dniestrovian lands in medieval Moldavian diplomacy (a general review) // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 95-119. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1397&article_id=32336

Abstract:
Written sources have a significant meaning in the study of medieval Moldavia. Numerous amounts of material of the Acts of the 14th-17th centuries was written in the West Russian (South Russian) language. During the 16th-17th centuries the Moldavian language began to slowly be introduced into the affairs of the state. During this period documents appeared, the beginning and end of which were written in Slavonic while the rest was in Cyrillic Moldavian. The structure, linguistic peculiarities, lexicon, titles of the ruling prince and feudal high-ranking officials, information about toponyms, anthroponyms, etc. contained in the material of the Acts present an interest into further study. Rusin influence is noticed in all of the Moldavian diplomacy of the 14th-17th centuries: in various written documents (grievances, grants, confirmations, immunity, legal, protection) and other administrative documents. It is evident in several other customary records of the Valach community which are equivalent with norms of the “Russian Truth” (for example “to track”) and in the naming of the heads of the community. At the head of the village community in the 14th-15th centuries a representative of the local nobility was called prince, vatamanor zhude. Urban and village settlements had Slavic names. In medieval Moldavian diplomacy, Slavic names and surnames including those of the feudal lords are seen as a constant occurrence. Of the toponyms mentioned in the documents of the 14th-15th centuries 12.5% are with the Rusin suffix -ovtsy (-evtsy), -intsy (-entsy). During this period, 24.5% are Slavic toponyms. It is also true that to a lesser degree there are also toponyms and hydronyms with the root rus.

Keywords:
Moldavia, Moldavian, Rusin Principality, Written Document (gramota), Act, West Russian, Rusin influence, Rusyn, Rusin, Ruthenian, toponyms, anthroponyms.

Literature Quotes:
Sulyak S.G. Rusins of the Carpatho-Dniestrovian lands in medieval Moldavian diplomacy (a general review) // Rusin. 2016. № 1 (43). Pp. 95-119.
Number of views: 230      Download in PDF


9.
2016.01.009. Pavel N. Biriukov, Elena S. Ustinovich, Pavel G. Shelengovskiy. Censorship and Printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 166-172. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1458581786.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the issues of censorship and printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries. The special attention is given to censorship during the First Russian revolution (1905- 1907 years). Among the materials are the archival documents from the national archives of Georgia, as well as materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals and legislation dedicated to this issue. The scientific publications are important too. The authors come to the conclusion that in the late of XIX – early XX centuries in the Caucasus, as in the whole of the territory of the Russian Empire, there was a sharp rise of printing and publishing periodicals – magazines. With the growth of revolutionary events there was a need in the institute of censorship to control over the printed word. Especially the role of this institution was high during the First Russian revolution. Despite the small number of states and different problems, the censorship has contributed to the stabilization of the political and crime situation in the territory of the Caucasian viceroyalty.

Keywords:
Censorship, printing, the Caucasian governorship, the end of XIX – early XX centuries.

Literature Quotes:
Pavel N. Biriukov, Elena S. Ustinovich, Pavel G. Shelengovskiy. Censorship and Printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 166-172.
Number of views: 236      Download in PDF


10.
2016.01.010. Tatiana E. Gvarliani, Rashad A. Kurbanov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade. The healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century: the development features // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 190-195. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1458581878.pdf

Abstract:
The article based on the archival material deals with the healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century. In writing this article, the authors made use of reports from national archives of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia), the archival department of administration of Sochi (Sochi, Russian Federation). There is given the statistics from the works of Russian and foreign authors, and also reference literature. The authors‘ use of the principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, the integrated consideration of socio-subjective in the subject of study and the maximum possible neutrality of the relationship of the researcher to interpret and evaluate the factual material. In conclusion, the authors stated that in the late of XIX – early XX centuries the healthcare system in the Caucasus has experienced a period of significant development. In this time, taking into account the regional peculiarities, there were developed the institutions of the health system, and have been taken measures of anti-epidemic struggle. Despite the difficulties of conducting the health activities in a multinational region the Russian administration managed to significantly reduce the number of patients in the Caucasus.

Keywords:
The healthcare system, the Caucasian governorship, the beginning of the XX century.

Literature Quotes:
Tatiana E. Gvarliani, Rashad A. Kurbanov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade. The healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century: the development features // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 190-195.
Number of views: 236      Download in PDF


11.
2016.01.011. Olga V. Natolochnaya, Nina I. Kryukova, Stanislav I. Buslaev. The development of the public education system in the Caucasus in the pre-revolutionary period (1905–1917 years)// Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 222-228. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1458582483.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the development of the public education system in the Caucasus in the period from 1905 to 1917 years. The article is paid attention to the problems of public education in the First Russian revolution, and also the role of parochial schools in the Caucasus. Among the materials are the documents of the national archive of Georgia, published reports and materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals. The main importance is given to the modern research on the history of the public education system of the Russian Empire. The methodological basis of research were the principles of objectivity and historicism, assuming an unbiased approach to the analysis of the problems, critical attitude to the sources, making judgments as a result of the analysis of a set of facts or phenomena in the development context and the historical setting. In conclusion, the authors note that the system of public education in the period from 1905 to 1917 years was the path of dynamic development. The increase in literacy in this period led to a sharp increase in labor productivity, both in agriculture and in industrial enterprises. But, most importantly, the system of public education has contributed to the strengthening of tolerance in the multinational Caucasus.

Keywords:
Public education system, primary school, the Caucasus, the parochial schools.

Literature Quotes:
Olga V. Natolochnaya, Nina I. Kryukova, Stanislav I. Buslaev. The development of the public education system in the Caucasus in the pre-revolutionary period (1905–1917 years) // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 222-228.
Number of views: 232      Download in PDF


12.
2016.01.012. Gregory L. Freeze. Confessions in Imperial Russia: analytical overview of historiography // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 261-281. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1458582641.pdf

Abstract:
Scholarship on confessional history—the history of religious institutions, practices, and interaction— has undergone profound change, especially in the last quarter century. Although bibliographical resources are woefully inadequate, the change has been enormous, reflecting all four dimensions of ―confessional history‖: (1) institutional religion (and its servitors); (2) believers; (3) ethno-confessional interrelations; and (4) the state‘s relationship to all of the foregoing. That massive accumulation, and of late more diversified and independent, makes possible a systematic analysis of the ―confessional factor‖ in ethnic issues and the state‘s response to them. It is essential, as all this literature demonstrates, to emphasize not only the diachronic (temporal) but also spatial (geographic) dimension, for the role of the religious factor varied sharply, not only for particular confessions, but also over time and space. The historiography has undergone a corresponding evolution, reflecting at once the dynamics and desiderata of Russian political history as well as the disciplinary evolution of scholarship on religion in the modern world. In the Russian case, this evolution falls into three main periods: pre-revolutionary, twentieth-century (Soviet), and post-Soviet, a periodization that applies for both Russian and foreign scholarship.

Keywords:
Russian Empire, confessional policy, historiography.

Literature Quotes:
Gregory L. Freeze. Confessions in Imperial Russia: analytical overview of historiography // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 1 (39). Pp. 261-281.
Number of views: 228      Download in PDF


13.
2016.01.013. Vishnyatsky L.B. Population Replacement in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic Transition and the Problem of Cultural Continuity // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 17-27. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_VoqW_8YKo0Xp1MUJt.aspx

Abstract:
The paper deals with the question of cultural continuity between the Neandertals and anatomically modern humans in Europe. Both species seem to have coexisted there for at least 2000 years and possibly much longer. The overview of relevant archaeological and paleoanthropological data from different parts of the continent leads to the conclusion that while in the west of the Neanderthal area in Europe no solid evidence for continuity have yet been found, the situation in the east seems more promising. Of special interest in this respect is the old hypothesis linking Eastern Micoquian with the Streletskaya culture. These two industries contain some highly specific tool types which may be indicative of their affiliation.

Keywords:
Europe, Middle Palaeolithic, Early Upper Palaeolithic, Neanderthals, anatomically modern humans, cultural continuity.

Literature Quotes:
Vishnyatsky L.B. Population Replacement in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic Transition and the Problem of Cultural Continuity // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 17-27.
Number of views: 230      Download in PDF


14.
2016.01.014. Covalenco S.I., Croitor R.V. Bone, Antler and Ivory Weapons from the Multilayer Late Palaeolithic Site Cosăuţi, Middle Dniester Area // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 121-135. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_eKsN_2fSu35CC3uFY.aspx

Abstract:
The seasonal Palaeolithic sites from the middle Dniester valley were reported as “kill sites” by analogy with the modern “caribou kill sites”. These sites yielded abundant remains of the extinct reindeer subspecies Rangifer tarandus constantini that was present in the region under study during the coldest phase of the last glaciation. The excavation of the site of Cosăuţi (Moldova) unearthed numerous specimens of lethal weapons. The close range weapons are represented by pikes made of longitudinally split diaphysis of long bones, pikes with a dihedral tip and groove “to drain the blood” made of shed reindeer antlers. The group of medium-range weapons includes spearheads and darts made of bone, horn and, less frequently, ivory. Usually, the weapons of this type are double-ended, fusiform, 10—20 cm long, round in cross-section. The group of throwing weapons includes a harpoon made of reindeer antler with notched and serrated edges and a hole in its diamond-shaped basal part. The ability to hit targets at long distances is evidenced by the finds of bone arrowheads whose form and mass meet all the requirements assoсiated with archery. They are divided into two types: the rod-like arrowheads with a displaced center of gravity and the leaf-shaped arrowheads with a partial stem.

Keywords:
Middle Dniester region, Late Palaeolithic, Cosăuţi site, kill sites, river crossing hunting, reindeer, bone and antler weapons.

Literature Quotes:
Covalenco S.I., Croitor R.V. Bone, Antler and Ivory Weapons from the Multilayer Late Palaeolithic Site Cosăuţi, Middle Dniester Area // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 121-135.
Number of views: 230      Download in PDF


15.
2016.01.015. Zhilin M.G. Arrowheads of the Butovo Mesolithic Culture // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 137-167. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_fa36_WGRHpujUis30.aspx

Abstract:
Most sites of the Butovo Mesolithic culture are situated on mineral grounds where artifacts made from organic materials are not preserved. This is why until recently the main attention has been paid to the study of lithic artifacts. However, the excavations of peat bog sites have yielded numerous bone arrowheads. The paper presents the results of a complex study of this category of material. It is demonstrated that bone arrowheads supersede flint ones in their diversity (both functional and typological) and kill capacity. They seem to have been the most important constituent in the hunting weaponry of the Butovo Mesolithic culture.

Keywords:
Upper Volga, Mesolithic, Butovo culture, arrowheads, peat bog sites.

Literature Quotes:
Zhilin M.G. Arrowheads of the Butovo Mesolithic Culture // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 137-167.
Number of views: 311      Download in PDF


16.
2016.01.016. Akimova E.V., Kharevich V.M., Popova N.N. Byuza II — a New Early Holocene Site in the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir Area // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 315-324. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_z2Yw_pY5zjFYChkDp.aspx

Abstract:
The open-air site of Byuza II was discovered in 2014 in the course of prospecting works in the northern part of the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir area. The site is situated on the Byuza river, which is a left tributary of the Yenisei. Byuza II is located on the left bank of the river, near the estuary. A representative inventory of surface finds, including cores (conical, wedgeshaped, etc.) and tools (end-scrapers, side-scrapers, burins, choppers), was collected on the offshore bar and in test pits. The stratigraphic position of the cultural layer points to its Early Holocene age, which corresponds to the period of the Palaeolithic to Mesolithic transition. Judging by the character of stone inventory, Byuza II could have been either a short-term workshop/habitation site or a specialized workshop area of a larger settlement.

Keywords:
Middle Siberia, Krasnoyarsk Reservoir, Byuza II, Early Holocene, Early Mesolithic, stone inventory.

Literature Quotes:
Akimova E.V., Kharevich V.M., Popova N.N. Byuza II — a New Early Holocene Site in the Krasnoyarsk Reservoir Area // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №1. Pp. 315-324.
Number of views: 232      Download in PDF


17.
2016.01.017. Degtyarev S.I. Materials for the History of the Stavropol District School (Stavropol'skoe Uezdnoe Uchilishche) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2016. Vol.(7). Is. 1. Pp. 4-26. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1459951972.pdf

Abstract:
The work devoted to the history of the Stavropol district school (Stavropol'skoe uezdnoe uchilishche). Are considered the problems that are typical for the education system of the Russian Empire in the first half of the nineteenth century. The author has published texts of documents about trying to find a more suitable premises for the Stavropol district school instead the old building.

Keywords:
Caucasus, Stavropol, Kharkiv education district, Stavropol district school (Stavropol'skoe uezdnoe uchilishche), the State Archives of Kharkiv region.

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S.I. Materials for the History of the Stavropol District School (Stavropol'skoe Uezdnoe Uchilishche) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2016. Vol.(7). Is. 1. Pp. 4-26.
Number of views: 233      Download in PDF


18.
2016.01.018. Alexandr N. Bondar. Thе Social-Topographic Structure of Town Horodnya in 17th – 19th Centuries // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (6). Is. 1. Pp. 4-10. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1458315333.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to problems of formation of social and topographical structure of the town Horodnya in 17th – 19th centuries. It arose in the first half of the 17th century both privately sloboda Hvoschy’s family. In early 18th century. Horodnya was hundred's town Chernigov Regiment. Buildings of Horodnya subordinate terrain. All major streets run parallel to the river Chibrizh. The main features of the development of the village preserved in our time.

Keywords:
Horodnya, Chibrizh, fortress, castle, Chernihiv region, Hetmanate.

Literature Quotes:
Alexandr N. Bondar. Thе Social-Topographic Structure of Town Horodnya in 17th – 19th Centuries // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (6). Is. 1. Pp. 4-10.
Number of views: 228      Download in PDF


19.
2016.01.019. Arthur Chubur. The Settlement Structure in the Upper Paleolithic as a Migration Marker // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (6). Is. 1. Pp. 11-25. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1458315414.pdf

Abstract:
The hierarchic typology of Paleolithic dwellings is presented. I levels: artificial features and natural shelters. II levels: dwellings-settlement and elementary dwellings. Level III for elementary dwellings: bone-earthen, with some large bones, without bones. To dwellings-settlements concern Kostenki-Avdeevo complexes (lengthy facility with a line of the hearths, on a site surrounded by storage pits and recessed into the mainland huts), “lengthy houses” Kostenki IV (lengthy facility with a line of the hearths), habitation Yeliseevichi complex (site surrounded by recessed into the mainland huts). Based on ethnographic analogies from different points of the globe following hypothesis is proposed to explain the phenomenon of "settlement-houses." A similar build was elaborated in stereotype similar situations. This is one of the self-adaptive mechanisms of people who were on the open spaces uncontrolled by them only just new spaces. Life on foreign soil forced to seek a closed, compact layout of the settlement. It gave not only physical protection, but also a sense of security and control space. The sacred space of the house extends to all settlement. The dwellings-settlements may serve as a marker for non indigenous a population.

Keywords:
Upper palaeolithic; hierarchical topology; elementary dwelling; dwellingsettlement; adaptive mechanism; migration marker.

Literature Quotes:
Arthur Chubur. The Settlement Structure in the Upper Paleolithic as a Migration Marker // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (6). Is. 1. Pp. 11-25.
Number of views: 225      Download in PDF


20.
2016.01.020. Baydak M. S. Women‟s images since the Great War in the reporting and interpretation of Galician writers // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2016. Vol. 45. Num. 1. Pp. 166-172. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/45/26.pdf

Abstract:
The World War 1914–1918 was a key topic for the Ukrainian writers of Galicia, who were her contemporaries. In the literary works the authors depicted the fate of ordinary women (mostly peasent) against military events including the context of communications with men. The character of wife/mother, who accompanies husband or son to the front is shown in the texts. The character of daughter appears in the context of problems that could arise in connection with the subject of violence. Writers represented positively the relations of mother and son, who was a defender, support and hope. The mood and conditions of women during the war, as it was shown in fiction, varied from expectations, helplessness, and misery to confidence and independence. In the men‟s works the life of women in time of war was associated with the protection of houses/farms, families, caring for the children. The authors pointed to the excessive religiosity and sometimes ignorance of heroines who often did not want to see what was happening outside their own life. The writers also pointed special attention to family relations, raised the themes of adultery and extramarital children.

Keywords:
The First World War, women‟s images, fiction, Galician writers.

Literature Quotes:
Baydak M. S. Women‟s images since the Great War in the reporting and interpretation of Galician writers // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2016. Vol. 45. Num. 1. Pp. 166-172.
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21.
2016.01.021. Turchenko F. G. How the first textbooks on history of Ukraine were created // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2016. Vol. 45. Num. 1. Pp. 177-191. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/45/28.pdf

Abstract:
The article is about books on the history of Ukraine, which were written in the first years of independence. General political situation, which occurred in the context of the reorganization of school historical education developed new programs and concepts of historical education, were discussing new books are characterized. The circumstances of the creation of a team of historians, Zaporizhzhya, Donetsk and Dnipropetrovsk university textbooks on the history of Ukraine for 7-11 classes disclosed in the context of the situation. Considerable space is devoted to attempts by pro-communist political forces in Ukraine, particularly its southeastern regions influence the content of textbooks. The failure of these attempts is described

Keywords:
history of Ukraine, the school textbook, “regional textbook”, methodology of history, national identity.

Literature Quotes:
Turchenko F. G. How the first textbooks on history of Ukraine were created // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2016. Vol. 45. Num. 1. Pp. 177-191.
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22.
2016.01.022. Khudish P. N. International reaction to annexation of the Transcarpathia by the USSR (1944 – 1945) // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2016. Vol. 45. Num. 1. Pp. 271-276. Code http://istznu.org/dc/file.php?host_id=1&path=/page/issues/45/44.pdf

Abstract:
The international reaction in the media and diplomatic circles to the process of annexation of the Transcarpathian Ukraine by The Soviet Union had been investigated by the author. The events surrounding the Czechoslovak government in London and the way they were highlighted in the press had been investigated as well. Author analyzed the international leading newspapers and magazines (British, American and Polish) as well as the reaction of the German, Czech and Slovak sides. Author made an attempt to investigate the causes and consequences of the resonance in the world press, on this issue, in January 1945.

Keywords:
Transcarpathian Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, USSR, world press, annexation.

Literature Quotes:
Khudish P. N. International reaction to annexation of the Transcarpathia by the USSR (1944 – 1945) // Scholarly Works of the Faculty of History, Zaporizhzhya National University. Zaporizhzhya: ZNU, 2016. Vol. 45. Num. 1. Pp. 271-276.
Number of views: 225      Download in PDF


23.
2016.01.023. Yaşar Şimşek. An Unknown Print Of The Tafsir Of Fatiha By Hadji Bektash Veli // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2016. № 77. Pp. 235-256. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1913/1473

Abstract:
Religious-Mystical Turkish Literature begins with the adoptation of Islam under the leadership of Hodja Ahmad Yassawi in Turkestan in the 12th century, develops in the same geography extending from Kashgar to Anatolia, shapes Turkish religious aims and the religious and social lives established in Anatolia and deeply affects Yunus Emre and Mevlana. It has a great impact on Anatolia by being impressed by the movement of Yassawiyya in Turkestan geography, and Hadji Bektash Veli is one of the mystics whose thoughts and spiritual heritages have reached today. He has the Tafsir of Fatiha apart from his other works such as Makālāt, Shathiyye, Advice of Hadji Bektash, Besmele Tafsir, Commentary of Forty Hadiths, Makālāt-ı Gaybiyye and Kelimāt-ı Ayniyye. Hüseyin Özcan first encountered this tafsir in England, and published the work by comparing it with another print found in Sulaimaniya Library. In this article, we will focus on the print that we have found in Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Atatürk Library and try to demonstrate the similarities and differences between these two prints. The print completes the missing point in the previous one, and the Tafsir of Fatiha by Hadji Bektash Veli comes out with the help of this print in an exact way.

Keywords:
Hadji Bektash Veli, tafsir, tafsir of Fatiha.

Literature Quotes:
Yaşar Şimşek. An Unknown Print Of The Tafsir Of Fatiha By Hadji Bektash Veli // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2016. № 77. Pp. 235-256.
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24.
2016.01.024. Mehmet Ersal. The Cult Of Dem In The Alevi Belief System And Dem Geldi Semahs // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2016. № 77. Pp. 127-173. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1915/1475

Abstract:
In the Alevi belief system, there are rituals and belief activities known as dem or dolu formed around the cult of drink which has an important place in the Alevi cems. Some publications have mentioned this cult within the Alevi belief system. However, those publications are far from revealing the overall of this subject because they aren’t focusing directly on the subject. Also, one of the basic lacks of available publications is that they don’t include visual elements. In this paper, determinations from dem-based rituals that are continuing to live in the Alevi communities in Anatolia and Balkans, together with differences between them will be analyzed and presented. There will be an analysis of “Dem Geldi Semahs”, one of the rituals that are dem-based practiced, supported with examples from different regions and visual elements. “Dem Geldi Semahs” is one of semah rituals which are performed together with dem service within cem ritual on different locations. In the study, “Dem Geldi Semahs” which we recorded during our fieldwork on the various locations in Turkey, and the forms of semah performances, its place in the ritual, musical works with notes will be presented comparatively. In the analyses, without just focusing on the semah in basic aspect, the view of the belief community on the cult of drink will be also presented by referring, when it is necessary, to other belief activities related to drink.

Keywords:
Alevi, Bektashi, dem, drink, semah, dem geldi semahs.

Literature Quotes:
Mehmet Ersal. The Cult Of Dem In The Alevi Belief System And Dem Geldi Semahs // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2016. № 77. Pp. 127-173.
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25.
2016.01.025. Recep Tek. Some Reflactions On The Foundations Of Alevi Bektashi Belief System In Kul Himmet’s Poems // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2016. № 77. Pp. 271-289. Code http://www.hbvdergisi.gazi.edu.tr/index.php/TKHBVD/article/view/1914/1474

Abstract:
The Bektashi sect created peculiar literary traditions by benefitting from the facilities of the literature that was emerging in Anatolia as of the XIII. century. This literary tradition is said to have been established by Kaygusuz Abdal. Kul Himmet, about whose life there is limited information in sources, is thought to have lived between the second half of the XVI. century and the first half of the XVII. century. Considered to be one of the seven supreme minstrels of Alevi-Bektashi tradition, Kul Himmet gained a huge reputation in the century he lived. Kul Himmet sometimes characterizes the Alevi Bektashi community, of which he is one of the members, as “Gürûh-ı nâci” and sometimes as “Hüseynî”. In his poems, he emphasizes the fact that being decent, respecting seniors and showing compassion to younger ones, responding to malignancy with kindness, not wanting the bad of anyone, not offending anyone, being modest, being patient and keeping secrets are features of a community. According to Kul Himmet, they passed through the as-sirat al-mustaqeem by means of these features. Kul Himmet believes that this community frowns upon disagreement and favors togetherness. In his poems, which pay tribute to the trio of Allah (God), Mohammed and Ali, the sympathy to Ali is in the foreground. According to Kul Himmet Hz. Ali was brought to life far before the universe was created and his name was engraved in the hearts of this community. Hz. Ali, who is at the heart of the unity of existence belief, appeared on the world in different guises. Along with these points, attachment to twelve imams, tevella and teberra belief, friendly talk, companionship, cem rituals and a number of other rituals connected with these and, briefly, a set of beliefs system of Bektashi were handled in poems. The present study aims to explain these aspects, which are present in Kul Himmet’s poems and form the basis of Alevi-Bektashi philosophy, by means of sample texts to show how Alevi-Bektashi belief system affects the poem world.

Keywords:
Alevi-Bektashi literature, Alevî-Bektashi belief system, Kul Himmet.

Literature Quotes:
Recep Tek. Some Reflactions On The Foundations Of Alevi Bektashi Belief System In Kul Himmet’s Poems // Türk Kültürü ve Hacı Bektaş Veli Araştırma Dergisi. 2016. № 77. Pp. 271-289.
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26.
Information
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27.
full number
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© 2015, Refereed Journal: History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin