History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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2 June 23, 2016


1.
2016.02.026. Jaroslav S. Kalakura. In The Post-Soviet Archival Ukraine: Discommunisation And Trends // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVI. Pp. 5-15. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/26_2016/3-Kalakura.pdf

Abstract:
The features of post-Soviet archival decommunisation in the context of the restoration of state independence of Ukraine, decentralization, democratization of information and archival systems, creating archival legislation, the formation of the National Archival Fund, overcoming the peripheral and marginality. The author highlights of key trends archival studies on ways of restructuring arhival research education, creation of educational materials, upgrade human resource capacity archivists, increase scientific and theoretical and methodological level of research, deepen their interdisciplinary relations, national traditions in archival research, its transformation into Ukrainian. Analyzes the activities leading arhival research cells, especially Ukrainian Research Institute of Archives and Documentation, Academic Ukrainian Institute of Archeology and Source Studies. M.S. Grushevsky, arhival research departments of national universities, especially the Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University. Theys considered key areas and topics of research, their connection with the theory and practice to isolate bottlenecks and future problems. They pay attention to the research and methodological activities of the central, sectoral and regional state archives, introduction of achievements of science in practice arhival research. Author analyzed the nature and conceptual foundations of contemporary Ukrainian archival his separation from Russian and Soviet, removal of ideological stereotypes associated with the paradigm “Rusko measure” common archive and preserve the environment under the aegis of Moscow. Considerable space is devoted to international cooperation of archivists from Ukrainian, integration into European archival research and archival space, his approach to the standards of the European Union and the world.

Keywords:
Archives, Ukrainian Archives, de-communization, trends, archival theory, history records, archival management, archival biographical, post-Soviet, Ukrainian Institute of Archives and Documentation, Department.

Literature Quotes:
Jaroslav S. Kalakura. In The Post-Soviet Archival Ukraine: Discommunisation And Trends // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVI. Pp. 5-15.
Number of views: 257      Download in PDF


2.
2016.02.027. Andriy N. Peleshchyshyn, Тetiana N. Bilushchak. Internet-Sources As A Means Of Information Usage For Information Source Specialist // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVI. Pp. 16-23. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/26_2016/4-Peleshchyshyn.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the overview of the historical Internet-sources. The sources are classified into six groups according to their location and the way they are reproduced for the structurized research into historical processes. Methods of the search and selection of sources in terms of source analyses are examined. The latter involves analytical criticism when proving authenticity, determination of the degree of trustworthiness, reliability, and scientific significance of a source. In addition a comparative historical method is analyzed in order to provide an insight into a historical event or process exploiting comparison to other phenomena and processes. Use photos, video, fonodokumentiv as historical sources determines the special informational value to the historian-dzhereloznavtsya. The importance of these sources allows the researcher to reproduce, precise information on defined events and phenomena. After searching about the events of 2003-2004. Ukraine and Georgia among social networks like Facebook, VKontakte, Twitter, found established communities that are potential primary sources: memories, photos, videodokumenty, audizapysy. After analyzing the content of the events of 2003-2004. Ukraine and Georgia among social networks like Facebook, VKontakte, Twitter, there is a clear difference between the content of different social networks, the reasons for this difference requires further research. It should be noted that the activities of the content is still not guarantee its accuracy and so our analysis is not complete and requires further study and detail. Thus, social networks provide archival-cell primary sources for the study of contemporary history and provide new opportunities for the historian-researcher

Keywords:
Internet-sources, archival, social networking, Source studies, comparativehistorical method, the Orange Revolution, the Rose Revolution, Facebook, VKontakte, Twitter.

Literature Quotes:
Andriy N. Peleshchyshyn, Тetiana N. Bilushchak. Internet-Sources As A Means Of Information Usage For Information Source Specialist // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVI. Pp. 16-23.
Number of views: 243      Download in PDF


3.
2016.02.028. Marina O. Pryn, Olexandr V. Pryn, Sergey I. Degtyarev. Correspondence Between The Academician Evgeny Fedorov And Tsou Yi-Hsin: Materials To The History Of Latitude Investigations // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVI. Pp. 33-41. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/25_2015/5-Pryn_Degtya.pdf

Abstract:
Setting a high value on such component of historical studies as the history of science the authors refer to the history of astronomical surveys development. In current paper special attention is given to the establishment and development of scientific institutions in the sphere of latitude observations. Particularly, the activity of Poltava Gravimetric Observatory, which was established in 1926 and played a role of fundamental gravimetric post connected to the world gravimetric network, is covered separately. The correspondence between astronomical scientists could be used as a valuable source for studying latitude investigations in the 20s century. In this work we present the texts of nine letter written in English, which are a part of correspondence between Ukrainian Soviet astronomical scientist E.P. Fedorov and Chinese scientist Tsou Yi-Hsin. The correspondence took place from 1957 to 1965 and ended up with the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in China in 1966-1976. Letters presented in the article contain information concerning the training of Chinese astronomers in the Soviet Union and establishment of latitude observations in China.

Keywords:
E.P. Fedorov, Tsou Yi-Hsin, Ukraine, People’s Republic of China, Soviet Union, USSR, International Astronomical Union, International Latitude Service, Poltava Gravimetric Observatory.

Literature Quotes:
Marina O. Pryn, Olexandr V. Pryn, Sergey I. Degtyarev. Correspondence Between The Academician Evgeny Fedorov And Tsou Yi-Hsin: Materials To The History Of Latitude Investigations // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVI. Pp. 33-41.
Number of views: 240      Download in PDF


4.
2016.02.029. Gennady G. Matishov, Piotr A. Avakov, Evgeny F. Krinko. Battle of Konotop (1659) in the Нistoriography and the Historical Memory // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 307-322. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1465041643.pdf

Abstract:
The successor to Bogdan Khmelnitsky, the new hetman of Army of Zaporozhye Ivan Vygovsky in 1658 switched sides Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and entered into an alliance with the Crimean Khan. To suppress the rebellion came to Ukraine by Russian troops of Prince Alexey Trubetskoy. His support of the Ukrainian Cossacks. In Ukraine flared up a real civil war (Ruin). June 28, 1659, near Konotop Russian cavalry under the command of Prince Semen Pozharsky defeated. Trubetskoi had to retreat. But Vygovsky failed to take full advantage of the results of the battle. The article examines the historiography of Konotop battle about the politics of memory. Historiographical sources are pre-revolutionary, Soviet, Russian, Ukrainian, studies and textbooks of history. The authors show how one of the battles of Russian-Polish war (1654–1667) focus has been placed under the influence of political circumstances. Konotop battle was seen in Ukrainian historiography as one of the most significant victories of the Ukrainian people in the struggle for independence. This is reflected in the Ukrainian history textbooks and other forms of historical memory.

Keywords:
Battle of Konotop, Russian-Ukrainian relations, Ivan Vygovskyy, Russian-Polish war 1654–1667, historiography, historical memory.

Literature Quotes:
Gennady G. Matishov, Piotr A. Avakov, Evgeny F. Krinko. Battle of Konotop (1659) in the Нistoriography and the Historical Memory // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 307-322.
Number of views: 244      Download in PDF


5.
2016.02.030. Leonid A. Bobrov, Alexey V. Salnikov. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey). Design Features, Design and Combat Use // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 323-334. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1465041673.pdf

Abstract:
The article describes the helmets of the Crimean Tatar nobility stored in the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Republic of Turkey). Based on the analysis of design and system design determined that hats were made of Circassian masters of the XVIII century. Helmet No. 1/810 in shape of the dome relates to the type of bevel. Forged a gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, pads, conical pommel, and ringed barmitsa Persian type. In Cherkessia similar hats were known as Tang (from the Arab. "the Taj", i.e. "crown"). It is most likely that the owner of the helmet was the last Noureddine Crimean khanate, Bahadir Giray (1789-1792) was the son of MuminGirei (?-1747) and grandson of Khan Saadet Giray IV (1717-1724). Helmet No. 1/812по the shape of a dome refers to the type of conal. Forged iron gilded crown complemented by ornamented Hoop, plates and funnel-shaped topping. Dome placed on the manufacture date of the helmet – "1180 of the Hijra" (i.e., 1766-1767 in the Gregorian calendar), as well as the inscription: "Owner Sultan Ali", "Muhammad Giray", "Mansour". Helmet No. 1/811по the shape of a dome refers to the type of cylindrical. Faceted iron supplemented gilt crown ornamented Hoop, conical pommel and Aventail Persian type. On the front of hats placed the inscription, "Sultan Mohammed Ibn AdilGiray". This suggests that the owner of the helmet could be the son of Nureddin (1718), serasker Budjaka and Editcol (1727-1728) Adil Ibn Selim I Giray or seraskier EditcolAdil Ibn Selim III Giray (1766-1767). In the framework of the interdisciplinary research were made copies of these helmets, which have become the object of scientific experiments aimed at the study of the functional properties of the considered hats. According to the results of the experimental tests it was found that all three of the helmet provide very reliable protection of the head and neck of the warrior from the cutting and cut-and-cutting blows of the enemy. The saber blade slips and falls from the smooth crown of agolove. In this case, the high dome of the helmet No. 1/810 absorbs shock and convex faces helmet No. 1/811 perform the function of reinforcing ribs. In some cases, the blade is sliding by inertia at the clavicle the defending warrior, but brings them no significant harm, as the blade meets the double layer segmented armor (blade aventails and shoulder part of the vessel shell ring).

Keywords:
The Crimean khanate, north Caucasus, tatars, circassians, armour, circassian helmets.

Literature Quotes:
Leonid A. Bobrov, Alexey V. Salnikov. North Caucasian helmets from the Crimean Tatar Nobility from the Museum of Topkapi Palace (Istanbul, Turkey). Design Features, Design and Combat Use // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 323-334.
Number of views: 253      Download in PDF


6.
2016.02.031. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Michal Smigel, Violetta S. Molchanova. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 382-391. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1465041845.pdf

Abstract:
The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe) and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

Keywords:
The hillmen of the Black sea region, jikis, medoveevtsy, ubykhs, shapsugs, natukhaitsy, princes, nobles, the free inhabitants, the dependent inhabitants, slaves.

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Michal Smigel, Violetta S. Molchanova. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 382-391.
Number of views: 242      Download in PDF


7.
2016.02.032. Vladimir B. Karataev, Igor А. Gordeev, Lyudmila G. Zimovets. Azov Cossack Host on the Territory of the Black Sea Coastline // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 392-397. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1465041873.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the history of using teams of Azov Cossack troops on the territory of the Black sea coastline. Among the materials are the archive documents, extracted from the archival department of Sochi administration (Sochi city, Russian Federation), the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar city, Russian Federation), as well as the modern and pre-revolutionary studies on the history of the Caucasian war and Cossack troops. The study used the historical-situational method, which allowed considering the history of the Azov Cossack troops on the territory of the Black sea coastline in the context of the period under review, namely the Caucasian war, in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. In conclusion, the authors stated that the Azov Cossacks played a prominent role in the conquest of the mountain communities of the Black sea coast of the Caucasus. This was evident in two award banners received by the Cossacks, including the sea service on the Black sea coastline.

Keywords:
Azov Cossack Host, Black Sea coastline, Caucasian war.

Literature Quotes:
Vladimir B. Karataev, Igor А. Gordeev, Lyudmila G. Zimovets. Azov Cossack Host on the Territory of the Black Sea Coastline // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 392-397.
Number of views: 309      Download in PDF


8.
2016.02.033. Konstantin V. Taran, Andrei P. Mikhailov, Susanna D. Bagdasaryan. The Outskirts during the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907 years): the Separatist Moods among the Population of the Black Sea Province // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 516-524. Code http://bg.sutr.ru/journals_n/1465042235.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the separatist moods among the Georgian population of the Black sea province. The attention is paid to the attempts of the georgian social-democrats to separate the Sochi district from the Russian Empire in 1905–1907 years. Among the materials are the archival documents of central and regional archives, namely the state archive of the Russian Federation, state archive of the Krasnodar Krai, the documentation center of contemporary history of Krasnodar Krai, the archival departments of Sochi administration and the historical museum of Sochi. The methodological basis of work based on the principles of objectivity and historicism, suggesting an unbiased approach to the analysis of the studied problems, as well as the critical attitude towards the sources. In conclusion, the authors stated that the social democrats used various methods of dealing with the existing regime, such as the destabilization of public-political situation, expressed in discrediting the Russian administration, provoking ethnic conflicts, the elimination of competitors in wage employment in the trade, physical violence against undesirable persons, the bullying of political opponents, taking money from the haves of the population, and collectively, the escalation of social tensions that eventually led to an armed clash with the authorities.

Keywords:
The first Russian revolution of 1905–1907, the Black Sea province, separatism.

Literature Quotes:
Konstantin V. Taran, Andrei P. Mikhailov, Susanna D. Bagdasaryan. The Outskirts during the First Russian Revolution (1905–1907 years): the Separatist Moods among the Population of the Black Sea Province // Bylye Gody. 2016. № 2 (40). Pp. 516-524.
Number of views: 238      Download in PDF


9.
2016.02.034. Lyubov G. Polyakova. Caricature as a type of propaganda during World War I (as illustrated by materials published in the Ogoniok magazine) // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2016. Vol. (5). Is. 1. Pp. 12-29. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1476539354.pdf

Abstract:
The paper analyzes caricature as a propaganda instrument utilized during World War I. The source used includes caricatures published in Ogoniok, a Russian magazine, in 1914–1916. The systematization principle, applied in the study into the caricatures, helped to identify main topics that were a subject for debate in the periodical press. Importantly, the researcher also remains as neutral in their interpretation and assessment of the actual material in the study as possible. At the end, the author concludes that the Ogoniok magazine focused its caricatures on the topic of Germany during World War I, while allies of Germany – Austria-Hungary and Turkey – were paid much less attention. The propaganda usually portrayed German allies in as dependent countries which were subordinate to Germany. In addition to the Entente's enemies, the caricature genre highlighted the military topic and the subject of the issued society faced in the rear.

Keywords:
Caricature, propaganda, Russian periodical press, World War I, Ogoniok magazine.

Literature Quotes:
Lyubov G. Polyakova. Caricature as a type of propaganda during World War I (as illustrated by materials published in the Ogoniok magazine) // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2016. Vol. (5). Is. 1. Pp. 12-29.
Number of views: 223      Download in PDF


10.
2016.02.035. Vadim A. Nesterenko. German Propaganda in the Military Zone of Ukraine in 1941–1943 // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2016. Vol. (5). Is. 1. Pp. 30-37. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1476538612.pdf

Abstract:
The article considers the propaganda in the press, radio, cinema and scenic art during the German occupation of 1941–1943 based on the examples of five regions that were a part of the Ukraine military zone (Chernigov, Sumy, Kharkov, Voroshilovgrad and Donetsk regions), controlled by the military authorities. The works of the contemporary Ukrainian historians, as well as the archival documents of the supreme authorities and administration of Ukraine central state archive (KMF-8 foundation, which holds the documents photocopies of the "South" Army), state archives of the Sumy and Kharkov regions and the periodical press materials of the occupation time were used in the research. It is noted that the ideological principles of the Nazi and their confidence in the success of the "blitzkrieg" did not allow the invaders to follow the pragmatic political course, offered by A. Rosenberg. Certain propaganda efforts were successful largely due to the involvement of the representatives of the local intelligentsia.

Keywords:
German occupation, propaganda, Ukraine military zone.

Literature Quotes:
Vadim A. Nesterenko. German Propaganda in the Military Zone of Ukraine in 1941–1943 // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2016. Vol. (5). Is. 1. Pp. 30-37.
Number of views: 248      Download in PDF


11.
2016.02.036. Sergei Bogdanov, Vladimir Ostapuk. Deaths from Homicides in the European Part of the Russian Empire in the Second Half of XIX Century: Extention, Tendencies, Territorial Peculiarities // East European History. 2016. Vol. (3). Is. 1. Pp. 4-12. Code http://ejournal49.com/journals_n/1477139100.pdf

Abstract:
This study examines the dynamics, basic tendencies and territorial peculiarities of deaths caused by homicides in the provinces of the European part of Russia for the period of 1870–1893. The article presents an overview of the scientific literature on the problems of the depopulation, caused by murders in the Russian Empire. The empirical bases of the study are the Vremenniki “Sudden and violent deaths in the Russian Empire” – publications of the Central Statistical Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The grouping of deaths by gender, place of residence (urban and rural areas) is analyzed in this work. It contains data on the murder victims in the largest cities of the European part of the country, the Russian Empire provinces are sorted by the annual number of deaths from homicides. The growth rates of the urban and rural population of the European Russia provinces are compared to the rate of homicides in the comparable area in terms of large and profound social changes that followed the abolition of serfdom. It is suggested that the numbers of official crime statistics did not always coincide with the Zemstvo’s statistics of murders, usually by the underestimation of this index in the police reports. The deductions of the correlation of the rates of homicides and social modernization that unfolded in the country after the fall of serfdom are presented in the conclusion.

Keywords:
Violent deaths, mortality from homicides, urban population, rural population, social reforms, the Russian Empire.

Literature Quotes:
Sergei Bogdanov, Vladimir Ostapuk. Deaths from Homicides in the European Part of the Russian Empire in the Second Half of XIX Century: Extention, Tendencies, Territorial Peculiarities // East European History. 2016. Vol. (3). Is. 1. Pp. 4-12.
Number of views: 235      Download in PDF


12.
2016.02.037. Alexei M. Avlasovich. Early Christian Burials of the Mogilev’s cities near Dnieper and Sozh // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (7). Is. 2. Pp. 76-85. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1467322392.pdf

Abstract:
This article is dedicated to the first Christian burials, discovered in the archaeological researches of urban complexes at the territory of Mogilev near the rivers Dnieper and Sozh. In this region, the four early ground cemeteries were discovered and they date back approximately to the XII century. The authors note that the change in funeral rites in burial necropolises on the territory of Mogilev Dnieper and Sozh indicates the penetration of Christianity in this region at the end of X–beginning of XI century. At the same time, in the cities, the centers of the spread of a new religion, the ground of the cemetery is dated from not earlier the XII century. A likely explanation for this can be observed in the XI century tradition of burying the dead under the earthen embankment in nearby barrow cemeteries.

Keywords:
Christianization, feudalization, city cemeteries, burial, encolpion, Churchdungeon, emergencе, bones, the territory of Dnieper and Sozh.

Literature Quotes:
Alexei M. Avlasovich. Early Christian Burials of the Mogilev’s cities near Dnieper and Sozh // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (7). Is. 2. Pp. 76-85.
Number of views: 228      Download in PDF


13.
2016.02.038. Wolodymyr M. Pylypenko. The Image of Constantinople in Polish Literature of XVI-XVII centuries (part I) // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (7). Is. 2. Pp. 122-126. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1467322890.pdf

Abstract:
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had difficult relations with the Ottoman Empire. The country often proclaimed its readiness to either begin the Great War against the Turks or join it. However, it tried to escape the war by all means. In a big amount of political literature dedicated to Turkey, which can be de divided into two groups according to the origin, one can find many descriptions of Istanbul, its topography and lifestyle. Some books written by witnesses (merchants, travelers, diplomats) are more objective, the characteristics – more precise, and full of details. Others belong to people who never visited Istanbul and retold somebody’s stories. They are not profound and full of stereotypes and toposes. Istanbul was depicted as a big city. Authors described mosques, but emphasized they used to be Christian churches trying to show the Christian past of the city. Many Christians (both slaves and free people) in Istanbul were mentioned. The Polish hoped for their support in case of war. Giving old and new names of Constantinople districts the writers knew the history very well. The authors were convinced in military weakness of Istanbul. According to their information, the city walls have never been fixed so it was easy to grab it. Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire used to be compared to dragon in its negative meaning. Polish publiсism shows the level of knowledge about the Ottoman Empire and we can distinguish between real facts and the author’s imagination.

Keywords:
Constantinople, publicism, image, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ottoman Empire.

Literature Quotes:
Wolodymyr M. Pylypenko. The Image of Constantinople in Polish Literature of XVI-XVII centuries (part I) // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. (7). Is. 2. Pp. 122-126.
Number of views: 239      Download in PDF


14.
2016.02.039. Nikolova L. Toward a Complex Cultural Model of the Genesis of Bronze Age in the Balkans (4th millennium cal BCE): Accumulation of Wealth // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №2. Pp. 99-104. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_ZjpJ_O2P55qYI4xpK.aspx

Abstract:
In light of current evidence the genesis of the Bronze Age in the Balkans can be the best explained by an interaction cultural model which includes Western Anatolia, the Balkans, the North Black Sea and Central Europe. In this research wealth has been proposed as a factor in the genesis of the Bronze Age in the Balkans (Early Bronze I). The wealth is the sustainable component of the prehistoric society and its core parameters can be connected with the agricultural and pastoral economies. Another core parameter is the house as property which became a wealth parameter probably in the Early Neolithic. The metal artifacts have special wealth values during Copper and Bronze Ages. The change of the wealth centers — from northeast Bulgaria (later Copper Age) to Upper Thrace (Ezero and Yunatsite culture) (Early Bronze Age) during the 3rd millennium is due to the emergence of the first states in Near East and their impact on Anatolia, as well as the integration of Upper Thrace with Anatolia, although both regions kept their cultural peculiarities. From this perspectives, the proposed Anatolian-Balkan interaction factor for emergence of Bronze Age Cultures in the Balkans had an important role in the development of standards of accumulation, distribution and re-distribution of wealth in the neighbor regions during the fourth millennium cal BCE. In addition, the 4th millennium would be the stage when wealth was accumulated as a stock by the mobile and semi-mobile communities which could be invested in gold and silver in later period.

Keywords:
Balkans, Anatolia, Central Europe, North-Pontic Region, Bronze Age, wealth, interactions, migration, Yunatsite culture, Dubene-Sarovka IIA, Baden Culture Complex, Cernavoda III.

Literature Quotes:
Nikolova L. Toward a Complex Cultural Model of the Genesis of Bronze Age in the Balkans (4th millennium cal BCE): Accumulation of Wealth // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №2. Pp. 99-104.
Number of views: 232      Download in PDF


15.
2016.02.040. Demchenko O.V. The Natural Environment and Adaptive Strategy of the Population of the Dnieper Rapids Region in the Late Mesolithic — Neolithic Period // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №2. Pp. 175-191. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_GvlQ_RwLAAh7CP3Q1.aspx

Abstract:
The article discusses the features of the natural environment during the late Boreal and Atlantic periods of Holocene and its impact on the lives of primitive people. The uniqueness and originality of the region are due to its locality, landscape and hydrological characteristics (the section where the Dnieper breaks through a crystal massif, numerous islands, rapids, rocks etc.), diversity of flora and fauna (a combination of forest and steppe species, extensive species and quantitative composition of fish and malaco-fauna, a high level of woody vegetation, unlike in the neighboring areas etc.). An integrated approach to the paleoecological analysis of archaeological materials has allowed to trace adaptive strategies to exploiting the environment in the region, the specifics economic model as well as to substantiate the existence of the economic calendar (cycle) and to recreate its possible model.

Keywords:
Eastern Europe, Dnieper Rapids Region, Holocene, Mesolithic, Neolithic, adaptation.

Literature Quotes:
Demchenko O.V. The Natural Environment and Adaptive Strategy of the Population of the Dnieper Rapids Region in the Late Mesolithic — Neolithic Period // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №2. Pp. 175-191.
Number of views: 233      Download in PDF


16.
2016.02.041. Stefanov V.I., Kuzminykh S.V., Chemyakin Yu.P., Koryakov I.O. Evolution of the Ancient Game of Dice: Sources from the Late Bronze Age // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №2. Pp. 235-253. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_oLEI_8g2MlEDywSST.aspx

Abstract:
The article describes and generalizes finds of game/divination dice from the sites of Srubnaya-Andronovo cultural area which occupied almost the whole territory of the Eurasian steppes and forest-steppes in the 2nd millennium BC. The authors offer information about 31 finds of dice (28 intact and 3 damaged pieces) and more than 50 half-finished items which demonstrate different stages of their manufacturing. All of them are found in the course of excavation of 15 archaeological sites including 13 settlements, anthropogenic part of a mine and only one cemetery. The area of finds in the Srubnaya-Andronovo period in contrast to cultures of the Early and Middle Bronze Age points to the shift of “active game zone” in the Late Bronze Age to the Southern Ural and adjacent western and eastern territories. Dice seem to have been used both for game and ritual purposes. We do not know the rules of the game practiced by the contemporary archaeological cultures, that is, algorithms of usage of dice, and we are inclined to consider the signs on the dice as “differentiating” pictograms which did not progress yet to be numeric ideograms.

Keywords:
Eurasian steppes, Late Bronze Age, Srubnaya-Andronovo world, dice, semantic of signs.

Literature Quotes:
Stefanov V.I., Kuzminykh S.V., Chemyakin Yu.P., Koryakov I.O. Evolution of the Ancient Game of Dice: Sources from the Late Bronze Age // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №2. Pp. 235-253.
Number of views: 237      Download in PDF


17.
2016.02.042. Skripkin A.S. The Fall of Scythia. The Sarmatian Faktor // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №3. Pp. 17-31. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_h2At_njaVCpPIIuM3.aspx

Abstract:
The author argues that a nomadic confederation of tribes headed by the Daai (Dahae), with its centre in the Southern Urals, had a hand in the initiation of destabilization of the political situation in the North Pontic area (the 1st part of the 4th century BC). From the turn of the 4th—3rd centuries BC campaigns to Scythia were undertaken by nomads from the territory of Sarmatia formed eastwards from the Tanais (the Don River) after the disintegration of the Dahae tribal confederation. The Lower Volga area was the political centre of Sarmatia. Sarmatians did not occupy the territory of Scythia, they only exercised political control over it. The situation changed in the 2nd century BC, when new nomadic groups came to Sarmatia from the east, making the demography considerably more complicated. From that time on, Sarmatia occupies the steppe territory up to the Dnieper River destabilizing the situation west of the Dnieper.

Keywords:
North Pontic area, Lower Volga region, Southern Ural region, Scythia, Sarmatia, the Dahae.

Literature Quotes:
Skripkin A.S. The Fall of Scythia. The Sarmatian Faktor // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №3. Pp. 17-31.
Number of views: 238      Download in PDF


18.
2016.02.043. Egorova T.V. The Rusin question in the historical context of the Slovak-Ukrainian relations // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №3. Pp. 259-276. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_z9MX_oHgeUzgZt5HM.aspx

Abstract:
Ongoing researches of Panticapaeum enable us to refine structure and chronology of a ceramic complex in the Hellenistic period. About 10 % of the Hellenistic black-glazed pottery detected during the excavations of Panticapaeum is ornamented in the West Slope style. There are only imported ceramics from Attica, Pergamum and, possible, some other centers. Attic West Slope vases are twice as many as Pergamum. Most of Attic examples are dated to the second quarter of the 3rd century BC. West Slope pottery from Pergamum is almost completely displaced by Attic imports from the beginning of the 2nd century BC. Among the West Slope wares, most frequently Classical shapes of drinking cups, preserved into the early Hellenistic period, as well as vessels for wine service and for oil and covered toilet boxes were decorated in this style. The new creations of Hellenistic period among drinking cups or vessels for wine have not been so popular and they are represented by the production of Pergamon workshops with a few exceptions. Ornamental motifs are not well diversified. Among all the images predominant are different Floral Garlands and geometric pattern. Some fragments of Attic ware dated by second quarter — middle of the 3rd century BC can be associated with Bracket Leaf Group, Edwards and Dikeras Group, which have been identified and described by S. Rotroff.

Keywords:
Attica, Pergamum, Panticapaeum, Hellenistic period, black-glazed pottery.

Literature Quotes:
Egorova T.V. The Rusin question in the historical context of the Slovak-Ukrainian relations // Stratum Plus: Archaeology And Cultural Anthropology. 2016. №3. Pp. 259-276.
Number of views: 241      Download in PDF


19.
2016.02.044. Nazaria S.M. The Socio-Economic And Political Evolution Of Moldova In The Period Of WWI (1914-1918) // Rusin. 2016. № 2 (44). Pp. 19-43. Code http://journals.tsu.ru//rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1432&article_id=31258

Abstract:
The role of Bessarabia in the course of the war changed: from the farthest end the land turned into a front on the edge of the Front line and in the end changed its state adherence. As a result of WWI the Moldovan people were divided. The smaller number on the left bank of the Dniester River became a part of the Soviet state while the majority (against its will) became part of the Kingdom of Rumania for 22 years.

Keywords:
Bessarabia, World War, Revolution, Rumania, Rumanian Troops, Occupation.

Literature Quotes:
Nazaria S.M. The Socio-Economic And Political Evolution Of Moldova In The Period Of WWI (1914-1918) // Rusin. 2016. № 2 (44). Pp. 19-43.
Number of views: 241      Download in PDF


20.
2016.02.045. Danilets Ju.V. The Orthodox Movement In Transcarpathia During The Years Of WWI // Rusin. 2016. № 2 (44). Pp. 136-157. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1432&article_id=31264

Abstract:
The article deals with the development of the Orthodox Movement in Transcarpathia during WWI. Based on the documents the methods of denationalization of the local population by the Hungarian government are analyzed. During the war the Greek Catholic Church began to introduce the Gregorian Calendar and Hungarian as the language of instruction in public schools. This caused resistance among the local populace who sought to have their children taught in their native language and to celebrate religious holidays according to the old style. Failure to attend the Uniate churches during Catholic celebrations lead to repression by the police and military. The extent of repression against activists of the Orthodox Church is traced. Repression consisted of a military presence in the main centers of the Orthodox Movement, daily activities noted by the gendarmerie posts and the cost of the military detachments placed upon the villages where they were stationed. Several facts about the punishment of Russian Orthodox activists by the Austrian and Hungarian soldiers in the zone of the front lines has been recorded. Reports of the administration witness to the spread of the Orthodox Movement during the years of WWI and the creation of a whole line of prayer houses on all the territory of contemporary Transcarpathia.

Keywords:
War, Orthodox Movement, Peasants, Hieromonk, Repression.

Literature Quotes:
Danilets Ju.V. The Orthodox Movement In Transcarpathia During The Years Of WWI // Rusin. 2016. № 2 (44). Pp. 136-157.
Number of views: 238      Download in PDF


21.
2016.02.046. Svitlyk N.M. The Cultural Life Of Transcarpathia On The Eve And During WWI // Rusin. 2016. № 2 (44). Pp. 229-244. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1432&article_id=31270

Abstract:
WWI caused a crisis in civilization, which brought with it the destruction of the old imperialist mentality and formation of new national states. For the oppressed peoples the war was an unexpected historical opportunity to express their national aspirations. Ukraine’s role during the war, which became fratricidal, was without doubt, significant. And it is not only the geopolitical factor but also with regard to the numerous human and material losses. Transcarpathia was not left outside the hostilities and this essay characterizes its cultural situation during the war. The specific political and cultural situations of Transcarpathia on the eve of the military activities influenced its future in the post-war division of the world. Carpathian Rusins were a dependent peasant people without their own institutions other than the church. Almost all researchers of Transcarpathian history unanimously agree that at the beginning of WWI there had not yet been established the relevant social, ethno-political, cultural, spiritual and psychological conditions for the social consolidation of Carpathian Ukrainians. The absence of these prerequisites were first of all predetermined by objective reasons. Carpathian Ukrainians did not have a state tradition, an adequate level of social stratification of society, influential community organizations. Perhaps the only unifying factor was the Uniate Greek Catholic Church but its role in the cultural consolidation of Ukrainian lands, for various reasons, was ambiguous or even destructive. At the beginning of the war the Hungarian authorities increased its measure of Magyarization of the region. In particular, the Cyrillic script was abolished and replaced by the Latin, the Julian Calendar was changed and all Slavic holidays were banned and local intellectuals persecuted. Thus WWI had aggravated the already difficult socio-economic and cultural situation in Transcarpathia and brought about a significant loss of life.

Keywords:
Carpathian Ukrainians, Rusins, Magyarization, Greek Catholic Church, Austro-Hungary, Intellectuals, Moscophilism.

Literature Quotes:
2016.02.046. Svitlyk N.M. The Cultural Life Of Transcarpathia On The Eve And During WWI // Rusin. 2016. № 2 (44). Pp. 229-244.
Number of views: 249      Download in PDF


22.
2016.02.047. Oksana Klymenko. Soviet Ideology in Workers’ Memoirs of the 1920s–1930s (A Case Study of John Scott’s and Borys Weide’s Memoirs) // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 37-55. Code http://kmhj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/73934/69379

Abstract:
Ideology was the basis of Bolshevik policy and was used as a means of control over society. Key Bolshevik ideological postulates were created and disseminated in the 1920s–1930s. The goal of this study is to analyze the influence of Soviet ideology on workers of the 1920s–1930s in the memoirs of John Scott and Borys Weide, who participated in the building of Magnitogorsk and DniproHES, respectively. Based on the memoirs, the article investigates the dissemination of ideology and describes its main tasks in the 1920s–1930s, such as “the building of socialism,” and the glorification and formation of the “new Soviet man.” These two constructs have several components, which are considered in the article. For example, glorification of “the building of socialism” was achieved through demonstrating Soviet “achievements” in industry, “superiority” to “capitalist countries” of the West, etc. To form the “new man,” images of “self” and “other” were created and an anti-religious campaign was conducted. The study focuses on the writing style of workers’ texts, as the memoirs were written in a formalized “Bolshevik” language through which their authors demonstrated their loyalty to the state. Also studied are changes in workers’ attitudes to the state despite ideological influence.

Keywords:
Memoirs; “new man”; “building of socialism”; Soviet ideology; Bolsheviks; workers.

Literature Quotes:
Oksana Klymenko. Soviet Ideology in Workers’ Memoirs of the 1920s–1930s (A Case Study of John Scott’s and Borys Weide’s Memoirs) // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 37-55.
Number of views: 242      Download in PDF


23.
2016.02.048. Olga Bertelsen. A Trial in Absentia: Purifying National Historical Narratives in Russia // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 57-87. Code http://kmhj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/73942/69387

Abstract:
This study explores contemporary Russian memory politics, and analyzes the ideological underpinnings of the 2011 Moscow court verdict that criminalized a Ukrainian scholarly publication, accusing it of inciting ethnic, racial, national, social, and religious hatred. This accusation is examined in the context of Russia’s attempts to control the official historical narrative. Special attention is paid to the role of Russian cultural and democratic civic institutions, such as the Moscow library of Ukrainian literature and Memorial, in the micro-history of this publication. Deconstructing the judicial reaction of Russian lawmakers toward the Ukrainian publication, the study analyzes the Russian political elite’s attitudes toward the “Ukrainian” historical interpretations of Stalin’s terror and other aspects of common Soviet history, and demonstrates the interconnectedness of the preceding Soviet and modern Russian methods of control over education, history, and culture. Language and legislation play an important role in Russian memory politics that shape the popular historical imagination and camouflage the authoritarian methods of governing in Russia. The case of the Ukrainian publication is contextualized by examining the cult of chekism and the discursive significance of anti-Ukrainianism, salient elements in Russian memory politics that have transcended national borders.

Keywords:
Russia; Ukraine; memory politics; extremism; ckekists; ideological subversion.

Literature Quotes:
Olga Bertelsen. A Trial in Absentia: Purifying National Historical Narratives in Russia // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 57-87.
Number of views: 308      Download in PDF


24.
2016.02.049. Roman Horbyk. Ideologies of the Self: Constructing the Modern Ukrainian Subject in the Other’s Modernity // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 89-103. Code http://kmhj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/73970/69411

Abstract:
Postcolonial theory has recently come under critique as an interpretative scheme applied to Eastern Europe and particularly Ukraine. However, a closer look suggests that the critique applies only to some aspects of the approach, such as a focus on power relations and representations, while the key question should be rephrased as whether the Ukrainian subject was constituted as a colonial subject. A range of empirical material from 1920s Ukrainian discourses, both Soviet and émigré, is analyzed to shed light on how Ukrainians constructed their subjectivity as “a site of disorder” (Dipesh Chakrabarty), splitting themselves into uncultured peasant masses to be modernized and erased as a voiceless subaltern subject, on the one hand, and modernizing elites, on the other. This split can be understood as an epitome of the colonial condition.

Keywords:
Ideology; subjectivity; modernity; Ukraine; Interbellum.

Literature Quotes:
Roman Horbyk. Ideologies of the Self: Constructing the Modern Ukrainian Subject in the Other’s Modernity // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 89-103.
Number of views: 237      Download in PDF


25.
2016.02.050. Natalia Shlikhta. Eastern Christian Churches Between State and Society: An Overview of the Religious Landscape in Ukraine (1989–2014) // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 123-142. Code http://kmhj.ukma.edu.ua/article/view/73945/69389

Abstract:
The decline of the communist regime in the late 1980s stimulated decentralizing processes within the Russian Orthodox Church; a final result being the emergence of Eastern Christian Churches in independent Ukraine: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate, the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Throughout the next two and a half decades the Ukrainian religious landscape has been simultaneously characterized by sharp conflicts and a search for ways of peaceful coexistence between various confessions; ecumenical initiatives, and asserting one’s “canonicity” against the “schismatic” others; attempts by some Churches to act as civil agencies and national institutions; attempts by the state under President Yanukovych to revive a “state” Church following the Russian model; moves towards a Local Ukrainian Orthodox Church and also towards “Russkii mir” (The Russian World). Crucial issues are – the Churches’ search for their place in the post-Soviet Ukrainian realm and their choices of models for coexistence with Ukrainian officialdom and society. In its approach the article provides a general profile of each Church, examines state policies towards religion and the Church in independent Ukraine, and describes a turning point, that being the Revolution of Dignity’s deepinfluence on the Churches’ perceptions of themselves and their place in Ukrainian life.

Keywords:
Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate; the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate; the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church; the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church; Ukrainian society; state-church relations.

Literature Quotes:
Natalia Shlikhta. Eastern Christian Churches Between State and Society: An Overview of the Religious Landscape in Ukraine (1989–2014) // Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal. 2016. № 3. Pp. 123-142.
Number of views: 245      Download in PDF


26.
full number
Number of views: 267      Download in PDF


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