History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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3 September 28, 2016


1.
2016.03.051. Kotlyar Y., Soloviova A. Peasant religious revolts in the South of Ukraine (1917-1922) // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVII. Pp. 19-28. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/27_2016/Kotlyar.pdf

Abstract:
The paper explores the religious peasant revolt in south of Ukraine during the Civil War (1917-1922). We can identify their following causes: the separation of the church from the state, the deprivation of civil rights of religious leaders, terror and repression against the clergy, and also removing the land. During the Revolution and the Civil War (1917-1922) Ukraine took place at the center of the main historical events. The instability of authority in the country, the political confrontation among the various forces, bandit raids on villages were typical for this period. Ukrainian peasants led the struggle for the land and their rights in difficult historical and political circumstances. One of the major problems was the freedom of conscience. The religious question in the context of rebel struggle of Ukrainian peasantry is one of the insufficiently explored problems, which had been neglected. The revolts of religious orientation against the Bolsheviks had a dual nature. Firstly, the establishment of the own groups that were typical for the initial period of the Civil War, and secondly, the organization and management of peasant revolts that were especially evident during the looting of churches in the early 20s of XX century. In Ukraine, it has not been a lot of anti-religious activities as for example in Russia. The civil war, peasant revolts made it impossible to Bolshevik authority to gain a foothold in Ukraine. Therefore, the main source of countering church policy was anti-religious propaganda. One of the means of such propaganda was public blasphemy and mockery of the holy things of the church, but such a practice was not widely used in the South of Ukraine. Representatives of the church were trying to resist Bolshevism, by creating their own rebel groups (e.g., self -defense B izyukova monast ery) and h eadin g the peas ant u prisi ng. Particularly strong religious and peasant uprisings took place in 1919-1922. The self-defense activity of Sviato-Grigorievskogo Biziukova monastery was the most famous in the military sense in 1919-1920. In 1920-1922 the murder of the agitator Barmashova during the female religious riot in the village Zasel№e obtained the all-Ukrainian resonance. Also the tragic events of the brutal murders of clerics in the village Otbedo-Vasil’evka were rather significant. The confrontation between the Bolshevik authorities and the church in the early years of the Civil War was caused mainly by the cruel class struggle. The victims of such a struggle became primarily those clergy who opposed the policy of the Bo lshevik government. In the future, the situation has changed. Ideological, political and purely pragmatic factors came to the foref ront. Peasant religious groups tried to resist Bolshevism, for example, during a seizure of church property, but their fate was sealed by the course of history.

Keywords:
Religion, revolt, the peasantry, the South of Ukraine, the church, values, Bolsheviks.

Literature Quotes:
Kotlyar Y., Soloviova A. Peasant religious revolts in the South of Ukraine (1917-1922) // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVII. Pp. 19-28.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


2.
2016.03.052. Paraskevopulo A. From the laboratory to the All-Union Center: the development of an experienced tobacco growing in the Kuban region in 1909–1930s // Russkaya Starina. 2016. Vol. 19, Is. 3. Pp. 165-174. Code http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1477521921.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the first decades of the history of the one of the oldest research institutions in Krasnodar region, the experienced leader of tobacco cultivation in the USSR. The author examines the genesis of the Institute of tobacco growing in the context of large-scale social and political transformations, the contribution of individual scientists in the development of its scientific and organizational activity. On the basis of archival documents, periodicals, works of the Institute employees, the author has reconstructed the main stages of development (from the laboratory to one of the leading research institutions in the country), areas of research, and methods of promotion of agricultural knowledge among the population.

Keywords:
Krasnodar region, tobacco, research institutions, the Institute of tobacco cultivation, scientific and educational activities.

Literature Quotes:
Paraskevopulo A. From the laboratory to the All-Union Center: the development of an experienced tobacco growing in the Kuban region in 1909–1930s // Russkaya Starina. 2016. Vol. 19, Is. 3. Pp. 165-174.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


3.
2016.03.053. Kiselev I. Soviet and German plans and forces at the beginning of the fighting in the Kuban region in August 1942 // Russkaya Starina. 2016. Vol. 19, Is. 3. Pp. 200-217. Code http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1477522085.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the fighting in the Kuban region which developed on the southern wing of the Soviet-German front in August 1942. Their beginning had a significant influence on the course of the Battle of Caucasus. During these fights the German Army Group “A” strived to defeat Soviet troops in the Kuban steppes and break through the Caucasus Mountains to the Black Sea coast. The Red Army troops retreated, trying to keep the forces and take advantageous lines for defense. The author has analyzed the combat instruction of the opposing sides, has compared various data on the number of land, air and naval forces of the USSR and the Axis. The special attention is paid on the evaluation of their composition, combat qualities and capabilities. This made possible to take a fresh look at the Soviet-German confrontation in the Kuban.

Keywords:
The Great Patriotic War, Battle of the Caucasus, Soviet forces, Kuban region, North-Caucasian Front, Black Sea Fleet, the Axis forces.

Literature Quotes:
Kiselev I. Soviet and German plans and forces at the beginning of the fighting in the Kuban region in August 1942 // Russkaya Starina. 2016. Vol. 19, Is. 3. Pp. 200-217.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


4.
2016.03.054. Solovyova T., Cherepanov A. Education of Kiev Province pre-reform period (Historical and Legal Aspects) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 3. Pp. 145-153. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1477992275.pdf

Abstract:
The article analyzes the development and establishment of education Kiev province, found that in the first half of the nineteenth century in Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire, including in the Kiev province, the transition to the state education system under which applied four types of schools, parish, county, provincial and universities. Investigated that the legal status of educational institutions that prepare teachers for schools defined set of government documents, which included education statutes and regulations circulars that shaped state-legal mechanism to implement educational functions.

Keywords:
Education, school, parochial school, university.

Literature Quotes:
Solovyova T., Cherepanov A. Education of Kiev Province pre-reform period (Historical and Legal Aspects) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 3. Pp. 145-153.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


5.
2016.03.055. Bondar A. The Fortified Manor of Dunin-Borkowski at the end of the XVII – XVIII centuries in Velikiy Listven // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. 8, Is. 3. Pp. 130-136. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1477519790.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the topography of the fortified manor of Chernigov colonel V. DuninBorkowski and his descendants in Velikiy Listven. The existence of the estate was initiated at the end of the 17th century. It was a close in plan to a square of the territory fortified with a rampart and moat. Its area was 4.5 hectares. There were situated the brick houses and buildings owners, as well as the stone Church. On the North side of the estate there were the peasants’ houses, there was a Posad near the fortifications. In the 19th century the estate was radically reconstructed, and the fortifications were destroyed. Some buildings of the 19th century have preserved to our time.

Keywords:
Velikiy Listven, fortress, castle, fortified manor Chernihiv region, DuninBorkowski.

Literature Quotes:
Bondar A. The Fortified Manor of Dunin-Borkowski at the end of the XVII – XVIII centuries in Velikiy Listven // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. 8, Is. 3. Pp. 130-136.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


6.
2016.03.056. Degtyarev S. The Property Litigation on Consolidation of the Village Trostianets for the Nobles Nadarzhinskiе // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. 8, Is. 3. Pp. 137-165. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1477519851.pdf

Abstract:
The paper presents a number of documents from the archive source about The litigation for confirmation of ownership of nobles Nadarzhinskiе to village Trostianets and some other settlements of the Akhtyrsky County of Slobodskaya province (hubernia). These events took place during 1783-1785. But among these materials there are also older documents, dating from 1750th to 1770th. These materials are a valuable source for the study of little-known pages of history of the village Trostianets and its inhabitants of the second half of XVIII century. The materials are kept in the State Archives of Sumy region (Ukraine) in the fund of the Akhtyrsky County Court.

Keywords:
Trostianets, village, Nadarzhinskiе, historical source, Slobodskaya Ukraine, XVIII century.

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S. The Property Litigation on Consolidation of the Village Trostianets for the Nobles Nadarzhinskiе // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. 8, Is. 3. Pp. 137-165.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


7.
2016.03.057. Gogitidze M., Shiukashvili I. The School of Ensigns’ Infantry in Georgia during the First World War of 1914–1918: Historical and Statistical Research // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 3. Pp. 123-128. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1478522598.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the school of ensign’s infantry in Georgia during the First world war. The attention is paid to the process of schools’ formation, the preparatory process, as well as the number of trained personnel for the imperial army. The materials for the preparation of this article were the normative-legal acts of the Russian Empire, as well as research on the topic of the publication. The methodological basis of the study was the principles of objectivity and historicism, suggesting an unbiased approach to the analysis of the studied problems, a critical attitude to the sources, the judgments in the analysis of the totality of the facts and the screening phenomena in the development and the context of the historical situation. In conclusion the authors note that during the war the school warrant issued approximately 108970 officers, of which 23653 were produced on the territory of the Caucasian military district.

Keywords:
First World War, the school of warrant officers, the Caucasian military district.

Literature Quotes:
Gogitidze M., Shiukashvili I. The School of Ensigns’ Infantry in Georgia during the First World War of 1914–1918: Historical and Statistical Research // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 3. Pp. 123-128.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


8.
2016.03.058. Zaitsev A. The Infrastructure of Sochi Resort in 1961–1984 years // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 3. Pp. 129-138. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1478522675.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the development of the infrastructure of Sochi resort in 1961–1984. As materials were used the documents of the archival department of administration of resort city Sochi. There was used general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization) and traditional methods of historical analysis in the solution of research tasks. In conclusion, it can be noted that energy was the only sector that does not reflect the disproportion in the development of the city-resort, typical for that period. The development of energy sector had resulted in providing the uninterrupted supply of the Big Sochi with electricity in 1960–1975. By 1975, almost the entire resort was careless by the telephone. But, nevertheless, the development of the above types of communication had remained one of the urgent problems of the city-resort. At the same time, the process of expansion of water supply and sewerage networks in the study period was a clear manifestation of the imbalance between construction of resort and objects of public utility.

Keywords:
Resort city, Sochi, 1961–1984.

Literature Quotes:
Zaitsev A. The Infrastructure of Sochi Resort in 1961–1984 years // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 3. Pp. 129-138.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


9.
2016.03.059. Mitiukov N. References to the Crimean campaign of Kniaz Golitsyn in the chronicles «The Success and Progress of the Holy League» // Crusader. 2016. Vol. 3, Is. 1. Pp. 43-53. Code http://www.ejournal29.com/journals_n/1463122118.pdf

Abstract:
The work analyzes the Spanish chronicles «The Success and Progress of the Holy League». It is shown that the military efforts of the Moscow state in Spain was seen as secondary. The information that reaches to Spain is very eclectic, and probably only on the level of rumors. From what we can make the assumption that direct diplomatic relations between Spain and Russia were not within the specified period. Assessment of the Russian-language historiography of the Crimean campaigns of Kniaz Golitsyn as a distraction substantial Turkish forces from the main theaters of hostilities is clearly exaggerated. If it is a distraction and took place, the Spaniards did not notice him. Overlooked the first Crimean campaign. The author is recognized for their help in preparing the material Antonio Erse Lizarraga (Cadiz, Spain).

Keywords:
Russia, Spain, Crimean campaign 1686–1689, regency of Sophia.

Literature Quotes:
Mitiukov N. References to the Crimean campaign of Kniaz Golitsyn in the chronicles «The Success and Progress of the Holy League» // Crusader. 2016. Vol. 3, Is. 1. Pp. 43-53.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


10.
2016.03.060. Cherkasov A.A., Ivantsov V.G., Smigel M., Molchanova V.S. The Evolution of Christianity in the Caucasus in the IV–XVIII Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 555-564. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1472756012.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the history of christianity in the Caucasus in the IV–XVIII centuries. The main attention is paid to the complex process of the formation and fate of christianity among the various peoples of the region, the role of Byzantine, Georgian and Russian christian missionaries. Among the sources there are used the pre-revolutionary materials on the history of christianity in the Caucasus, as well as scientific publications. The decision of research tasks is based on the principle of historicism. The problem of the spread of christianity in the Caucasus, while maintaining the pagan beliefs are seen as a consequence of specific socio-historical conditions, in the formation of which the important role was played by external factors, and also the conservative mentality of highlanders. In conclusion, the authors note that every of the caucasian peoples had its story of the spread and adoption of christianity in the Caucasus. On the one hand, the ancient christian Armenia and Georgia, relatively quickly emerging with paganism, on the other, the mountain tribes, who had no public began taking christianity in the reduced forms under the influence of Byzantium, Georgia, Russia with the broad preservation of pagan beliefs. Ultimately, under the influence of the first Crimean khans, and then the Ottoman Empire, these tribes have consistently converted to Islam.

Keywords:
Byzantium, Georgia, Turkey, Russia, christianity, paganism, Islam, the caucasian peoples, toponyms.

Literature Quotes:
Cherkasov A.A., Ivantsov V.G., Smigel M., Molchanova V.S. The Evolution of Christianity in the Caucasus in the IV–XVIII Centuries // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 555-564.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


11.
2016.03.061. Kudryavtsev A.A. Muscovy and the Crimea in the Historical Destinies of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the second half of the XVI century // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 565-574. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1472756040.pdf

Abstract:
In the second half of the XVI century Moscow state, defeating Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556) khanate, came to the Caspian sea to the North Caucasus, where he encountered opposition from two very strong opponents: Turkey and the Crimean khanate. The Ottoman Empire, which included Northern Caspian and the Caucasus in the number of its geopolitical interests, sought power and diplomatic means to subdue the mountain and nomadic population, their power and actively opposed their rapprochement with Russia. One of the main performers and conductors of Turkish policy in the region were dependent vassal of Turkey, the Crimean khanate. The peoples of the North Caucasus, first of all Nogai, the Kabardians and the representatives of several other Circassian tribes, seen in Moscow state protection from the expansive aspirations of the Crimea and Turkey and actively supported the Russian fortification construction and anticrime military operations of the Russian North Caucasus. Military and diplomatic successes of the Russian state in the North Caucasus and the Caspian sea in the second half of the XVI century contributed to the development of international Eastern trade along the Volga-Caspian route and the strengthening of the authority of Moscow in the region and in the international arena.

Keywords:
Moscow state, the Crimean khanate, geopolitical interests, «Circassians», Cossacks, Tatars, raids, Russian «gorodki», Circassian Embassy.

Literature Quotes:
Kudryavtsev A.A. Muscovy and the Crimea in the Historical Destinies of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the second half of the XVI century // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 565-574.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


12.
2016.03.062. Shevchenko N.A., Ermachkov I.A., Sinyaeva M.I. The Influence of Historical and Climate-Geographical Factors on the Development of Eastern Black Sea Region // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 611-619. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1472756184.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the North-Eastern Black sea region in the context of historical and climategeographical processes. The attention is paid to the socio-economic factors that influenced the development of the area. The materials for the preparation of this article are the latest publications on history and geography (including climatology) in the North-Eastern Black sea region and adjacent territories. The methodological basis of the study are the principles of objectivity and historicism, suggesting an unbiased approach to the analysis of the studied problems, a critical attitude to the sources, the judgments in the analysis of the totality of the facts and the screening phenomena in the development and the context of the historical situation. The authors conclude that a geographic location had a great influence on the historical development of the region. The presence of the warm Black sea has identified the development of the district over a number of centuries, since it was crossed by important trade routes.

Keywords:
The Russian Black sea coast, evolution, historical and climatic factors.

Literature Quotes:
Shevchenko N.A., Ermachkov I.A., Sinyaeva M.I. The Influence of Historical and Climate-Geographical Factors on the Development of Eastern Black Sea Region // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 611-619.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


13.
2016.03.063. Lyapin D.A. The Social Composition of the Service Class and Urban Population of the South of Russia in 1640–1650-ies // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 586-593. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1472756098.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to analysis of the social composition of the public service as the urban population of the South of Russia in the middle of XVII century on the basis of archival documents. The main source of work was the List of the Russian army in 1651. In 1640-1650 in Russia there is an important socio-political changes which influenced the social structure of society. Especially these processes are reflected region on the southern border of the state. Here appeared and spread rapidly regiment of the new system, first of all, dragoons. In the cities the growing number of urban population, which accounted for some of these, about 40% of the population, and if to this number be added 10% of privately owned households, that is obtained for the first time since early settlement in the region, serving the population in large cities has caught up with citizens («posadskie»). After 1650 was scrapping the social structure of local society: urban population began to grow steadily, and servitors to fall. The article shows that these processes have been associated not only with the military reform and the specifics of colonization, which we discussed at the beginning of our article. In our opinion, the first reason of the changes (especially in cities) became the policy of the B. I. Morozov‘s government 1645-1648, conducted so-called «urban structure». After 1649, the privileges in trade got trades people and servicemen for instrument proposed to move in this social category and become taxpaying members of the town community. The occupation of trade and craft activity was declared a monopoly of the townspeople.

Keywords:
«Posadskie», service people, the South of Russia, social reforms, military reforms.

Literature Quotes:
Lyapin D.A. The Social Composition of the Service Class and Urban Population of the South of Russia in 1640–1650-ies // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 41. Is. 3. Pp. 586-593.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


14.
2016.03.064. Hope O. Blejсh. Historical Review of the Formation of Geopolitical and Ethnic Space of the North Caucasus // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 16, Is. 1. Pp. 4-11. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1462959277.pdf

Abstract:
The article said that the North Caucasus was one of the centers of early civilization, as it was settled by nomads since ancient times, thanks in no small measure contributed to the very favorable natural and geographical conditions of the region. It was here that establish trade, political, military and cultural contacts between the near Eastern countries and Eastern Europe and the North Caucasus because the region gradually formed as a multiethnic region. It consisted of three language families: the Caucasian, Turkic and Indo-European (Ural-Altaic). The article describes the history of the formation of ethnic resettlement in the Caucasus and considered their ethnographic map. It is proved that at the beginning of the XVIII century ended with the formation of the ethnic composition of the population of the North Caucasus, which has survived unchanged to this day.

Keywords:
North Caucasus, mountain peoples, ethnographic map, multiethnic region, language families.

Literature Quotes:
Hope O. Blejсh. Historical Review of the Formation of Geopolitical and Ethnic Space of the North Caucasus // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 16, Is. 1. Pp. 4-11.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


15.
2016.03.065. Vladimir B. Karataev. The Military Art and the Black Sea Coastline: the Amphibious Operations at the Mouth of the Psezuapse River in 1839-1840 years // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 16, Is. 1. Pp. 12-20. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1462959293.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the military art of the command structure of the Imperial Russian army during the Caucasian war in the Black sea coastline. The article is paid attention to the amphibious operations at the mouth of the Psezuapse river, held in 1839-1840. The materials for the preparation are the archival documents of achival department of Sochi administration. The methodological basis of the research are the principles of objectivity and historicism, suggesting an unbiased approach to the analysis of the studied problems, a critical attitude to the sources, making judgements as a result of the analysis of a set of facts, as well as the display of phenomena in the development and the context of the historical situation. The author comes to the conclusion that during the landing operations at the mouth of the Psezuapse river has been widely applied to military art: a misleading the enemy about the place of landing, the use of boats in the mouth of the river, etc., which helped to keep the personnel of the Russian army. These operations have become the most bloodless during the confrontation on the black sea coastline.

Keywords:
Military art, Black Sea coastline, landing, 1839-1840 years.

Literature Quotes:
Vladimir B. Karataev. The Military Art and the Black Sea Coastline: the Amphibious Operations at the Mouth of the Psezuapse River in 1839-1840 years // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 16, Is. 1. Pp. 12-20.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


16.
2016.03.066. Alexander V. Demidov. Anapa to the Crimean War (1853–1856 years) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 16, Is. 1. Pp. 21-42. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1462959313.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the facts characterizing the degree of involvement of the fortress of Anapa in the supply of Russian troops located in Crimea and Sevastopol during the Crimean war of 1853-1856 year. It presents numerous materials from English, Irish and Scottish Newspapers of the period, which described in detail every event that had a connection to the fortress of Anapa. These foreign sources blend harmoniously with the data from the Russian periodicals, and information stored in the State archive of the Krasnodar region. All the information can be divided into three periods of life of Anapa: before leaving the fortress of Anapa, at the time of its abandonment by the Russian army and after returning of the Russian garrison in Anapa. In the conclusion the author comes to the conclusion that the degree of participation of Anapa to the Crimean war is quite high, despite the fact that geographically it is not located in the Crimea.

Keywords:
The Crimean war, Anapa, Anapa to the Crimean war, leaving Anapa, Sefer-Bey.

Literature Quotes:
Alexander V. Demidov. Anapa to the Crimean War (1853–1856 years) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 16, Is. 1. Pp. 21-42.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


17.
2016.03.067. Emir Yener. Ottoman Seapower and Naval Technology during Catherine II’s Turkish Wars 1768-1792 // International Naval Journal, 2016, Vol. 9, Is. 1. Pp. 4-15. Code http://ejournal37.com/journals_n/1458039132.pdf

Abstract:
Empress Catherine II of Russia’s reign is largely shaped by the two Russo-Turkish wars (1768- 74 and 1787-91). This conflict did result with a most radical alteration of the balance of power in Eastern Europe and both the Romanov and Ottoman navies did play a decisive role in the outcome of these two wars. However, in stark contrast with the well researched Russian naval power, the knowledge about the Ottoman navy in this crucial era is still largely limited to the 18th century assumptions and judgements. This short article is an attempt to redress this situation by comparing the strength, construction, arming and manning of the Ottoman sailing navy with its Russian counterpart in light of the latest research from the Turkish, Western European and Russian archives.

Keywords:
Ottoman Navy, Russian Navy, Age of Sail, marine engineering, naval warfare, Russo-Turkish Wars.

Literature Quotes:
Emir Yener. Ottoman Seapower and Naval Technology during Catherine II’s Turkish Wars 1768-1792 // International Naval Journal, 2016, Vol. 9, Is. 1. Pp. 4-15.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


18.
2016.03.068. Vadim A. Nesterenko. German Propaganda in the Military Zone of Ukraine in 1941–1943 // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts, 2016, Vol. 5, Is. 1. Pp. 30-37. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1476538612.pdf

Abstract:
The article considers the propaganda in the press, radio, cinema and scenic art during the German occupation of 1941–1943 based on the examples of five regions that were a part of the Ukraine military zone (Chernigov, Sumy, Kharkov, Voroshilovgrad and Donetsk regions), controlled by the military authorities. The works of the contemporary Ukrainian historians, as well as the archival documents of the supreme authorities and administration of Ukraine central state archive (KMF-8 foundation, which holds the documents photocopies of the "South" Army), state archives of the Sumy and Kharkov regions and the periodical press materials of the occupation time were used in the research. It is noted that the ideological principles of the Nazi and their confidence in the success of the "blitzkrieg" did not allow the invaders to follow the pragmatic political course, offered by A. Rosenberg. Certain propaganda efforts were successful largely due to the involvement of the representatives of the local intelligentsia.

Keywords:
German occupation, propaganda, Ukraine military zone.

Literature Quotes:
Vadim A. Nesterenko. German Propaganda in the Military Zone of Ukraine in 1941–1943 // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts, 2016, Vol. 5, Is. 1. Pp. 30-37.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


19.
2016.03.069. Lana Mzarelua. Wine Tourism in Georgia, as the Oldest Cultural Item // Winemaking: Theory and Practice, 2016, Vol. 1, Is. 2. Pp. 44-48. Code http://ejournal42.com/journals_n/1482934332.pdf

Abstract:
In the essay are given the perspectives and trends of wine tourism development in Georgia. By the author’s opinion wine tourism is rather actual in Georgia, this is proved by the tourist’s great requests in wine tourism in recent times as they are interested in recreation with the items of ancient culture as well. The author underlines, that development of wine tourism in Georgia is possible, when the revival of viticulture and winemaking will be implemented by domestic market protection and detection of the export market. When essential profitable credit line will be available for grape processing privatized enterprises, when the local production of natural resources will be used maximally, when grape purchase and realization of the agricultural products will be legally regulated, the conditions of attracting investments will be created, and the most important thing – well-organized infrastructure and the best service for tourists marketing will be developed.

Keywords:
Wine, tourism, viticulture, cultural and medical investment.

Literature Quotes:
Lana Mzarelua. Wine Tourism in Georgia, as the Oldest Cultural Item // Winemaking: Theory and Practice, 2016, Vol. 1, Is. 2. Pp. 44-48.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


20.
2016.03.070. Anvar M. Mamadaliev. The Institution of Slavery of Kievan Rus Epoch of Yaroslav the Wise and Classical Slavery of Antiquity: a Comparative Analysis // Slavery: Theory and Practice, 2016, Vol. 1, Is. 1. Pp. 14-23. Code http://ejournal43.com/journals_n/1472649682.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the institutions of classical slavery of antiquity with the institution of slavery in the heyday of the feudal monarchy of Russ – in the second half of the XI century. This period is on the board of one of the most productive national rulers – Yaroslav I Vladimirovich the Wise and his sons. The paper gives a characterization and comparative analysis of classical slavery of antiquity, the slavery of the ancient Slavs and in the early period of the Russian state, the institution of slavery, enshrined in the Russian Truth. The author comes to the conclusion that the ancient russian state, which according to tradition was called the Kievan Rus, it is hardly fair to call the slavery feudal monarchy, as the slavery in the form in which it is usually understood (referring to his classic version) does not exist.

Keywords:
Slavery, slaves, bondage, bondman, the comparative characteristics, the Ancient Greece, the Ancient Rome, antique, Kievan Rus, Russkaya Pravda, the middle ages.

Literature Quotes:
Anvar M. Mamadaliev. The Institution of Slavery of Kievan Rus Epoch of Yaroslav the Wise and Classical Slavery of Antiquity: a Comparative Analysis // Slavery: Theory and Practice, 2016, Vol. 1, Is. 1. Pp. 14-23.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


21.
2016.03.071. Russev N.D. WWI and the villagers of Budjak (the experience of micro-history) // Rusin, 2016. № 3 (45). Pp. 217-231. Code http://journals.tsu.ru//rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1461&article_id=30658

Abstract:
In the article the former Bulgarian colony Shikirli Kitai (now Suvorovo) located on the Danubian border of the Russian Empire is used as an example to show how the socio-economic position and mentality of the local population changed during WWI. The massive mobilization shifted the most of the peasant’s toil on women, which promoted their emancipation. Military failures largely revolutionized the soldiers to some. The collapse of the army, lack of goods and social disorders triggered chaos in Russia in 1917. In Shikirli-Kitai the anger of the poor led by the soldiers returning from the front was directed against the local authorities and the priest. Such “revolts” took place around Budjak, as there were no large landowners. Intoxicated by the freedom of their own reforms, the villagers were taken aback when Bessarabia came under Romanian rule in a matter of weeks.

Keywords:
Russia, Romania, Suvorovo, Shikirli-Kitai, war, soldiers, mobilization, difficult circumstances, casualties, wounded, missing in action, captivity, revolution, the poor, Primar, suppression of priests.

Literature Quotes:
Russev N.D. WWI and the villagers of Budjak (the experience of micro-history) // Rusin, 2016. № 3 (45). Pp. 217-231.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


22.
2016.03.072. Lazarev Y.A. The Ideological Basis of the “National” Intellectuals of the Imperial Period: The Views of G. A. Poletika (1725–1784) on “Ukrainian Statehood” // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2016. Vol. 5. N 1. Pp. 184-202. Code http://slovene.ru/2016_1_Lazarev.pdf

Abstract:
The paper deals with questions regarding the formation of the modern Ukrainian nation and, particularly, the impact of the political activities and writings of G. A. Poletika (1725–1784). The author reconstructs the context of the genesis of Poletika’s views of the history of “Malorossiya” and the Zaporozhian Host. The paper shows that the debates about the rights and duties of the nobility, in which Poletika was deeply involved, could not produce radically new political language capable of questioning the integrity of the Russian Empire. This, in turn, derives from the fact that preservation of “Malorossiyan rights” was an important element of political bargaining for the Ukrainian Cossack elite. The purpose of this bargain was to consolidate the privileged position of the Cossack elite. In Poletika’s writings, the ideal of the “Hetmanate” or independent “Ukrainian Cossack state,” as well as feelings about the loss of the “Ukrainian state,” was absent, even though this concept was common to all Malorossiyan social groups. The Cossack past was considered by Poletika as an “age of misfortune,” in contrast to the Polish times. The author concludes that there were significant ruptures in the process of building the modern Ukrainian nation.

Keywords:
Hetmanate, Russian Empire, G. A. Poletika, Ukrainian Cossack elite, history of Ukraine, Little Russian rights, Zaporozhian Host.

Literature Quotes:
Lazarev Y.A. The Ideological Basis of the “National” Intellectuals of the Imperial Period: The Views of G. A. Poletika (1725–1784) on “Ukrainian Statehood” // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2016. Vol. 5. N 1. Pp. 184-202.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


23.
2016.03.073. Kezban Acar. Imperial Rivalry Between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over Kurdistan the Nineteenth Century // Journal of History Studies. 2016. Vol. 8 Is 3. Pp. 1-20. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//imperial-rivalry-between-russia-and-the-ottoman-empire-over-kurdistan-the-ninteenth-century201610.pdf

Abstract:
Relying on Russian and the Ottoman archival documents as well as relevant secondary literature, this article explored Russian and Ottoman policies toward the Kurds to win the imperial contest on their borders. Also, the article argues that while the Russian and the Ottoman governments tried to protect their interests and power, the Kurds had their own agenda. They were active players in regional politics and depending on the Russian and the Ottoman policies, promises and their own interests, they tried to make best out of this rivalry.

Literature Quotes:
Kezban Acar. Imperial Rivalry Between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over Kurdistan the Nineteenth Century // Journal of History Studies. 2016. Vol. 8 Is 3. Pp. 1-20.
Number of views: 8      Download in PDF


24.
2016.03.074. Vlad Vornic, Valeriu Bubulici, Sergiu Popovici. Sarmatian Necropolis from Medeleni (Com. Petreşti, Ungheni District, Republic Of Moldova) // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2016. No. 3. Vol.3. Pp. 20-48. Code http://jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/191

Abstract:
Medeleni sarmatian cemetery is located at the left side of the road Chișinău-Sculeni, about 1 km north of the river Prut and 1,3 km north-north-east of the Medeleni village. Reported in the winter of 2015 during the reconstruction of the irrigation system in Blindesti, the site was partially investigated, by rescue excavation, this spring. It was explored an area of 864 square meters, there havingbeen discovered five north-south oriented inhumation graves and a religiouscomplex bounded by grooves and provided with entrance in the south. All thegraves were disturbed in antiquity, skeletons being partially or fully torn. According to the inventory and anthropological measurements, the graves belonged to females people. From all complexes, stands the tomb 1, which wasprovided with a rich inventory, consisting of three pendants and 11 vestment goldapplies, 13 agate beads and a clay spindle whorl. The analysis of the inventory items with chronological value and of other objects confirm the dating ofdiscovered complexes in the second half of the century I - century II AD. Regarding the ethnic-cultural affiliation, rite, funerary practices and inventory items plead for assigning Medeleni necropolis to Sarmatian antiquities.

Keywords:
Middle Prut Plain, plane necropolis, tomb, the Roman period, Sarmatians

Literature Quotes:
Vlad Vornic, Valeriu Bubulici, Sergiu Popovici. Sarmatian Necropolis from Medeleni (Com. Petreşti, Ungheni District, Republic Of Moldova) // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2016. No. 3. Vol.3. Pp. 20-48.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


25.
2016.03.075. Isaev E. The Militarization of the Past in Russian Popular Historical Films // Ideology and Politics. 2016. № 1(6). Pp. 31-50. Code https://ideopol.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/ENG-1.4.-Isaev.pdf

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the problem of the militarization of culture in modern Russia. The two key scientific fields are public history and the politics of memory. Firstly, based on the official documents and statements of authorities, the paper will characterize the relations between the state and Russian cinema as well as the role of history and historical films in the contemporary politics of memory. Secondly, after identifying the role of popular cinema in Russia, the paper will explore the characteristics of historical periods in popular films, based on the hypothesis that the Russian past is mostly represented around or inside war, while the criticism of war is becoming less and less important for popular cinema

Keywords:
Russian cinema, politics of memory, historical film, militarization of culture, popular film.

Literature Quotes:
Isaev E. The Militarization of the Past in Russian Popular Historical Films // Ideology and Politics. 2016. № 1(6). Pp. 31-50.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


26.
full number
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