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4 December 23, 2016


1.
2016.04.076. Degtyarev S. The practical application of punishments to civil officials of the Russian Empire at the end of XVIII – the first half of the ХІХ centuries // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVІІ. Pp. 5-18. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/27_2016/Degtyarev.pdf

Abstract:
The article examines the practice of civil penalties on officials of state institutions of the Russian Empire, including those that operated on the Ukrainian lands in the late XVIII and the first half of the nineteenth century. The bureaucratic system of that period was not perfect and one couldn’t imagine it without numerous violations, corruption and bribery, official red tape, etc. The author points out that the special position of Empire’s public officers was expressed by them being subjects to all kinds of liability under the rules that differed from the general ones. A special kind of responsibility was established for them. A set of specific penalties for officials was finally systematized at the end of the first third of the nineteenth century. Officials, in addition to violations related to their duties, often committed administrative offences and crimes. The author confirms this with examples from the documentary sources of the studied period. The reason for punishment of government officials could be: complaints; noticed by the administration abuses and failures; accusations from subordinates or institutions; the trial of other people; audits; reviews of records statements, reports. The conclusion was made, that the number of misconducts and abuses in these institutions was very high, but the majority of guilty officials often avoided their responsibility or carried penalties that did not meet the degree of the guilt. The author believes that such situation is typical for modern bureaucratic system of Ukraine as well. This negatively affects the cooperation of various institutions of civil society with government and local authorities. It happened in the last quarter of the seventeenth century, when the Ukrainian lands finally lost their autonomyunder the rule of the Russian Empire and its bureaucratic system completely replaced the Ukrainian management practices.

Keywords:
Russian Empire, Ukraine, officials, bureaucracy, service violations, punishments.

Literature Quotes:
Degtyarev S. The practical application of punishments to civil officials of the Russian Empire at the end of XVIII – the first half of the ХІХ centuries // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVІІ. Pp. 5-18.
Number of views: 27      Download in PDF


2.
2016.04.077. Balukh O. Bukovyna during Bohdan Khmelnytskyi’s Campaigns in Moldova of 1650-1653: Military and Political Dimension // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVІІ. Pp. 59-71. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/27_2016/Balukh.pdf

Abstract:
The body of the article goes on to discuss the military and political situation in Moldavia in the context of the history of Northern Bukovina, Moldavian-Polish and Moldavian-Turkish relations that affected our region. In 1650-1653 Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytskyi made four military campaigns of Cossack troops in Moldova. During the first campaign the Cossacks and Tatars plundered the country, took many Moldavian settlements and towns, including Chernivtsi and Khotyn and signed such a desirable alliance with the Moldavian hospodar. During the next two years V. Lupu did not fulfill his obligations that caused the second campaign to Moldova in summer 1652. The marriage of Tymish and Rozanda caused concern among Moldavian boyars, who threw V. Lupu from the Iasi throne with the help of Wallachian and Transylvanian people. Rebellious Logofet G. Stefan became a new hospodar of Moldova. Those events caused the third march of B. Khmelnytskyi troops to Moldova in April-May 1653. The success in the battles against the troops of G. Stephan changed to failures and defeats from Wallachian and Transylvanians troops. As a result V. Lupu lost the Moldavian throne. Having learned that, Khmelnytskyi sent Cossacks led by Tymish to the fourth and the last Moldavian campaign, which ended with the failure and the death of the Hetman’s son.

Keywords:
Northern Bukovina, Moldavia, the military-political relations, Rzeczpospolita, Ottoman Empire, Wallachia, Transylvania, Bohdan Khmelnytskyi.

Literature Quotes:
Balukh O. Bukovyna during Bohdan Khmelnytskyi’s Campaigns in Moldova of 1650-1653: Military and Political Dimension // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2016. № XXVІІ. Pp. 59-71.
Number of views: 24      Download in PDF


3.
2016.04.078. Afanasenko V. Characteristics of the Formation of Regional Museums in the South of Russia, the Main Stages and their Content and Functional Features (for example, Rostov, Krasnodar and Stavropol Regional Museums) // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 10, Is. 4. Pp. 150-161. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1482841416.pdf

Abstract:
Museums are custodians of cultural heritage and interact directly with the public, it generates interest in the past and shape the attitude of society and the individual to the cultural heritage. History Museum as a social and cultural institution, organizes and coordinates the activities of people on the last saving, transferring knowledge of it, plays a special role in the cultural revival, unity and the formation of civil society. Local history museum South of Russia as they arise, functioning and development directly linked to the cultural and historical heritage of the multiethnic macroregion, whose safety depended, and depends on the assessment, understanding and perception of all subsequent generations.

Keywords:
Museology, museum, collection, museum collections, exhibition, exhibitions.

Literature Quotes:
Afanasenko V. Characteristics of the Formation of Regional Museums in the South of Russia, the Main Stages and their Content and Functional Features (for example, Rostov, Krasnodar and Stavropol Regional Museums) // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 10, Is. 4. Pp. 150-161.
Number of views: 24      Download in PDF


4.
2016.04.079. Urushadze A. «Caucasian Way of War»: the Russian Army in the Confrontation with the Mountaineers of the Caucasus // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 10, Is. 4. Pp. 179-189. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1482841610.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to peculiarities of life of soldiers and officers of the Russian army in the Caucasus during the Caucasian war of the XIX century. Highlighted several factors influencing the formation of a separate Corporation known under the nomination «real Caucasians». Firstly, discusses the importance of climatic conditions of the region, which directly influenced the change of tactics of the Russian army, modified the elements of everyday life of its soldiers. Secondly, it examines the peripheral status of the Caucasus in the space of the Russian Empire, engendered a special feeling of almost existential abandonment of the soldiers of the Separate Caucasus corps (1857 – Caucasian army). The atmosphere of service in the Caucasus were alien to the strict formalism. Hazing appearance of the soldiers the Separate Caucasus corps was supplemented with the peculiarities of relationships among the officers. The author comes to the conclusion that the conditions of war in the Caucasus has transformed Russian army almost beyond recognition. The article is written on the basis of various sources of personal origin: the memoirs and letters of participants of the Caucasian war.

Keywords:
«Real Caucasian», Caucasian war, the Russian Empire and the Caucasus.

Literature Quotes:
Urushadze A. «Caucasian Way of War»: the Russian Army in the Confrontation with the Mountaineers of the Caucasus // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2016. Vol. 10, Is. 4. Pp. 179-189.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


5.
2016.04.080. Metreveli R. The Crusades and the Kingdom of Georgia // Crusader. 2016. Vol. 4, Is. 2. Pp. 63-80. Code http://www.ejournal29.com/journals_n/1481884301.pdf

Abstract:
The Crusades had a significant impact upon the fate of the Georgian state. The Georgian royal court used the Europeans’ undertakings to its own advantage. The Georgian king David IV the Builder (ruled from 1089 to 1125) was well-aware of objectives pursued by the Crusade wars. The ruler’s clever approach to laying out the nation’s policy, predicated upon the relevant characteristics of the then-existing international situation, resulted in the Crusades overpowering the might of the Seljuq Turks, which successfully facilitated the stepping-up of efforts to wage a war of liberation on the part of the Georgians. In the East, David IV the Builder was viewed as a protector of Christianity. He, concurrently, was seen as a ruler with a tolerant policy toward Moslems and firm ties with the Moslem world, which was due to a special state of affairs inside and outside Georgia. Thus, the link between the Kingdom of Georgia and the Crusades hinged on certain political circumstances. Among the rulers known to have had dealings with the Crusaders are George III (1156–1187), Tamar the Great (1181–1213), George IV Lasha (1213–1222), Rusudan (1223–1245), and some others. Some of the original sources, like letters from foreign kings, mention with great regard the name of George V the Brilliant (1314–1346), considered a eulogist of Jerusalem’s holy places and a mainstay of Christianity. His activities did not have a direct linkage with the Crusades but, nonetheless, were a continuation of the struggle of their ideology. The solicitude of the Kingdom of Georgia toward Christianity would, eventually, pay off by helping boost its prestige and ensure its high standing internationally.

Keywords:
Crusades, Kingdom of Georgia, protector of Christianity, Jerusalem’s holy places.

Literature Quotes:
Metreveli R. The Crusades and the Kingdom of Georgia // Crusader. 2016. Vol. 4, Is. 2. Pp. 63-80.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


6.
2016.04.081. Hope O. Blejkh. The Pre-Revolutionary Milestone in the Development of Prophetism Among the North Caucasian Peoples (1760–1864) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 17, Is. 2. Pp. 74-80. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1479138705.pdf

Abstract:
The article analyzes the educational policy of the government of Russia of XVIIIXIX centuries, reveals the peculiarities of social-political and educational movement in the province in the period and reveals his influence on the development of the school and the humanistic ideas of the North Caucasian peoples; the conclusions drawn are that the first stagepublic awareness of thought (the end of XVIII – 60-e years of the XIX centuries) was marked bythe further development of public education in the region and the emergence of the pioneers of highland intellectuals, who, under the guidance of leading Russian educators, awakened public opinion of their peoples and Orient the latter on further rapprochement with each other and with the great Russia.

Keywords:
Mountain peoples of the North Caucasus region, school education, educators, advanced science, the Russian scientists to the specificity of training.

Literature Quotes:
Hope O. Blejkh The Pre-Revolutionary Milestone in the Development of Prophetism Among the North Caucasian Peoples (1760–1864) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 17, Is. 2. Pp. 74-80.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


7.
2016.04.082. Nunu Mikeladze, Aleksandr Otarashvili. The International Recognition of Democratic Republic of Georgia // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 17, Is. 2. Pp. 94-98. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1479138906.pdf

Abstract:
The work presents the diplomatic activity of the Georgian Democratic Republic in Europe, with the aim of recognition of its sovereignty at the international level. On March 14, 1919, the Georgian delegation has presented a Memorandum to the conference with a short description of past and present realities of Georgia. The document has been argued the need for state independence of Georgia. By this Memorandum, the Georgian authorities have requested the allied states to support the choice of the Georgian people, Georgian people's choice, the recognition of the Georgian nation among other nations and recognition of its sovereignty.

Keywords:
republic, democracy, international, conference, sovereignty, delegation, memorandum, independence, Europe.

Literature Quotes:
Nunu Mikeladze, Aleksandr Otarashvili. The International Recognition of Democratic Republic of Georgia // History and Historians in the Context of the Time, 2016, Vol. 17, Is. 2. Pp. 94-98.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


8.
2016.04.083. Karataev V.B. The Advocacy Activities of the Foreign Emissaries in the North-Western Caucasus // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts, 2016, Vol. 6, Is. 2. Pp. 52-58. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1482473013.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with advocacy of foreign agents in the North-Western Caucasus during the Caucasian war (1801–1864). Certain attention is paid to the external political reasons of emissaries‘ participation in the Caucasian War. The documents of regional archives, namely from the State Archives of the Krasnodar region, as well as modern scientific literature served as materials for this article. A part of the archival sources is introduced for the first time. The conclusion states that emissaries carried out diverse advocacy activities against the Russian Empire in the North-West Caucasus. Their work manifested in the spread of proclamations, instigating the Highlanders to fight against Russia, spread of false information and instructors‘ activities. The emissaries also took part in combat.

Keywords:
propaganda, foreign agents, the Caucasian war, the North-West Caucasus.

Literature Quotes:
Karataev V.B. The Advocacy Activities of the Foreign Emissaries in the North-Western Caucasus // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts, 2016, Vol. 6, Is. 2. Pp. 52-58.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


9.
2016.04.084. Taran K.V. The Annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in the Pages of the Soviet Periodical Press (based on the Materials from the Krasnoye Znamya Newspaper) // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts, 2016, Vol. 6, Is. 2. Pp. 59-67. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1482473099.pdf

Abstract:
The article makes use of the materials of the Soviet periodical press to give an insight into the annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina to the Soviet Union. It particularly focuses on the operations which involved airborne troops of the Red Army and the rhetoric adopted by the Soviet press. The materials used include the issues of the Krasnoye Znamya (The Red Banner) newspaper published between July 2 and 10, 1940. The article also resorts to scientific works on the subject discussed, which helped reconstruct the overall picture of the events at the time. At the end, the author concludes that the materials of the Soviet periodical press, describing the integration of Bessarabia and Bukovina into the Soviet Union, are an important source which allows us, in retrospect, to have a closer look at these events. The periodical press enables us to analyze fields of action the Soviet propaganda acted in, as well as the propaganda rhetoric in the pre-war period. In the annexation period, the Krasnoye Znamya newspaper covers the following key topics in its propaganda articles: 1. The invincibility of the Red Army, 2. The main mission of the Red Army is the Liberator army, 3. Blackening the previous history of the annexed territories and portraying a magnificent vision of the future.

Keywords:
Annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina, 1940, Soviet forces, Krasnoye Znamya newspaper.

Literature Quotes:
Taran K.V. The Annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina in the Pages of the Soviet Periodical Press (based on the Materials from the Krasnoye Znamya Newspaper) // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts, 2016, Vol. 6, Is. 2. Pp. 59-67.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


10.
2016.04.085. Natalya A. Shevchenko. Grigorii V. Rozen and Industrial Wine-Making in Georgia: to the Issue of the Origins of the Industry Development in the first half of the XIX century // Winemaking: Theory and Practice, 2016, Vol. 1, Is. 1. Pр. 12-18. Code http://ejournal42.com/journals_n/1472672006.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the history of georgian winemaking in the XIX century. The article based on the analysis of an interesting source – the private correspondence of the governor of the territories of the Caucasus and the Transcaucasia in 1831-1837 years – the baron Grigorii V. Rozen with the Minister of Finance count Egor F. (Georg Ludwig) Kankrin, dated 1836-1837 years – not only explores the advantages and disadvantages of home winemaking in Georgia, but also the possibility of its industrial production with the establishment of the legal entity.

Keywords:
winemaking, Georgia, the history of winemaking, Georgian winemaking, industrial winemaking, Grigorii V. Rozen, Aleksandr Chavchavadze, Mozer Lents

Literature Quotes:
Natalya A. Shevchenko. Grigorii V. Rozen and Industrial Wine-Making in Georgia: to the Issue of the Origins of the Industry Development in the first half of the XIX century // Winemaking: Theory and Practice, 2016, Vol. 1, Is. 1. Pр. 12-18.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


11.
2016.04.086. Baibarin Andrey A., Mashkin Nikolay A., Shelengovskiy Pavel G. The Northwest Caucasus from Ancient Times to the 19th century: A Historiographical Review of the Recent Publications in the Periodicals // Rusin. 2016. № 4 (46). Pp. 119–140. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1472845652.pdf

Abstract:
This paper presents a historiographical analytical review of the articles published in 2008–2015 and dedicated to various aspects of the history of peoples of the Northwest Caucasus from ancient times to the early 20th century. Some articles are based on archival documents and materials introduced into the scientific discourse for the first time. The paper is divided into subsections that dwell on the following issues: 1) the tribes of the Northwest Caucasus in Old times and the Middle Ages; 2) The Caucasian war and the peoples of the Northwest Caucasus; 3) the relationships between the Russian administration and mountain communities; 4) various aspects of the functioning of mountain communities; 5) historiography. The authors come to the conclusion that the reviewed articles, when analysed in terms of historiography, expand and specify the knowledge about the Northwest Caucasian sub-ethnic groups by investigating various aspects of their life. These articles have specifically historical content that promotes the research to a new level of understanding of the historical process in the region, while other articles generalize the historiography devoted to the Northwest Caucasian peoples.

Keywords:
Northwest Caucasus, periodicals, contemporary historiography.

Literature Quotes:
Baibarin Andrey A., Mashkin Nikolay A., Shelengovskiy Pavel G. The Northwest Caucasus from Ancient Times to the 19th century: A Historiographical Review of the Recent Publications in the Periodicals // Rusin. 2016. № 4 (46). Pp. 119–140.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


12.
2016.04.087. Glushchenko N.A. The by-laws of the Russian orthodoxcatholic society of mutual aid as a source for studying Rusin immigration in the United States of America // Rusin. 2016. № 4 (46). Pp. 191–204. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1484&article_id=33452

Abstract:
The author considers the By-Laws of the Russian Orthodox Catholic Mutual Aid Society of the United States of America. In this article, which will be part of a series of articles, the author focuses on the first four parts of the By-Laws devoted to the official designations and symbols of the Society, its objectives, and the conditions for membership, with particular attention paid to its different types. The author concludes that the main objectives of the Society set by the By-laws consisted not only in the insurance coverage of Slavic immigrant population in the USA, but also the promotion of the Orthodox and Slavic culture aimed at preserving the national identity of those who happened to be away from their native lands. The Society was interested in recruiting healthy young people who were able to pay monthly contributions and take an active participation in social and cultural life, especially in strengthening the position of the Orthodox Church in North America.

Keywords:
Russian Orthodox Catholic Mutual Aid Society, Slavs, Rusins, immigration.

Literature Quotes:
Glushchenko N.A. The by-laws of the Russian orthodoxcatholic society of mutual aid as a source for studying Rusin immigration in the United States of America // Rusin. 2016. № 4 (46). Pp. 191–204.
Number of views: 24      Download in PDF


13.
2016.04.088. Kudinov D. Domestic Craft Industries of the Dwellers of Miropole, Kursk Governorate, at the Latter Half of the 19th – the Beginning of the 20th Century // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 4. Pp. 197-213. Code http://ejournal26.com/journals_n/1486643456.pdf

Abstract:
Current article is devoted to the research of the backbone of the economy of the zashtatnyi town of Miropole in post-reform period – domestic craft industries, which are the object of the present study. Their importance in the lives of citizens due to the decay in agriculture (caused by the modesty of land resources) and the increase in the activity of consumers from Kursk and Kharkov governorates is emphasized. The peculiarities of the handicraft production dynamics are specified together with the quantitative and qualitative changes in its organization and nature. Particular attention is paid to shoemaking – key type of domestic craft industries. The author stresses the outstanding role of the chairman of Sudzha zemskaya uprava Prince Pavel Dolgorukov in the establishment of craft shoe production and craftsmen healthy lifestyle.

Keywords:
domestic craft industry, craftsman, workshop, leather craft, shoe making, pottery, willow weaving.

Literature Quotes:
Kudinov D. Domestic Craft Industries of the Dwellers of Miropole, Kursk Governorate, at the Latter Half of the 19th – the Beginning of the 20th Century // Gardarika. 2016. Vol. 9, Is. 4. Pp. 197-213.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


14.
2016.04.089. Basil C. Gounaris. The Alexei Obrescoff Case: The Levantine Backstage of British Mediation in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) // The International History Review. 2016. Vol. 38. Is. 4. Pp. 675-693. Code https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07075332.2015.1100131

Abstract:
In 1954 M. S. Anderson, considering the impediments prohibiting a successful British mediation between Catherine II and Mustafa III, judged that Ambassador John Murray and Whitehall were carried away because they could not see the complex picture of Eastern diplomacy. In this paper, it will be argued that the Ambassador's miscalculated optimism and the hastiness of London were due to a neglected factor: the imprisonment of the Russian Resident at Constantinople, Alexei Obrescoff. The Resident, an in-law of the Abbotts, Factors of the Levant Company and Murray's personal friend, entrusted him with his infant children on the eve of his detainment. This trust was an asset that Murray hoped to exploit in the forthcoming international race to undertake the mediation, if only he could free his friend. London hoped this appeal to the Ottomans would please the Russians, but mediation slipped out of Murray's hands. The Abbotts assisted the Prussians and the Austrians to reunite the Obrescoff family and thus gained them the advantage. Embittered, Murray was dragged into a passionate but unsuccessful clash with the Abbotts which emphasised both the importance of Levantine networks in the exercise of ‘Oriental’ diplomacy and his unsuitability for the particular post.

Keywords:
Russo-Turkish War, Levantines, British eighteenth-century diplomacy, Abbott family, Constantinople

Literature Quotes:
Basil C. Gounaris. The Alexei Obrescoff Case: The Levantine Backstage of British Mediation in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) // The International History Review. 2016. Vol. 38. Is. 4. Pp. 675-693.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


15.
2016.04.090. Kryvosheia I., Degtyarev S. The Incorporation of Bunchukovogo Partnership in Part of Service and Social Elite of the Russian Empire in the last third of the XVIII century // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 42, Is. 4. Pp. 1118-1126. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1480334087.pdf

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the highest stratum of сossack neuryadovoy officership of Left-Bank Ukraine – bunchukovym comrades. The special attention is given to the process of incorporation of bunchukovogo partnership in the service and social elite of the Russian Empire. During the last decades of the Cossack statehood bunchukovye comrades gradually turned into military and civilian high-level officials. In the 1780th they got the rights of the Russian nobility. The paper also presents data on the number of bunchukovyh comrades in the Cossack regiments in the early 1780s and indicated how many of them were in the civil state service in Kyiv, Chernihiv and Novgorod-Siversky governorships (namestnichestva) in 1782– 1796. The authors concluded that social and official status of bunchukovoe comrades in the XVIII century was very high. This is recognized even by representatives of the Russian administration in the Ukrainian lands. This contributed to the fact that for bunchukovymi comrades were enshrined rights of the nobility of the Russian Empire, and in the public service they occupied mid-level positions. They received in this case ranks of collegiate assessor.

Keywords:
сossack officership (starshina), neuryadova starshina, bunchukovoe partnership, nobility, Hetmanate (Hetmanshchina), Russian Empire, XVIII century.

Literature Quotes:
Kryvosheia I., Degtyarev S. The Incorporation of Bunchukovogo Partnership in Part of Service and Social Elite of the Russian Empire in the last third of the XVIII century // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 42, Is. 4. Pp. 1118-1126.
Number of views: 23      Download in PDF


16.
2016.04.091. Tsibenko V. The War which was not: Russian, Turkish and Western Historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th Century // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 42, Is. 4. Pp. 1148-1157. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1480334231.pdf

Abstract:
In the present paper we analysed in a historical perspective the formation of the key concepts concerning the military actions in the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century in Russian, Turkish and Western historiography. We didn't set before ourselves the task to find out, “what really happened in the western North Caucasus”, but rather how actually “what happened in the western North Caucasus” is interpreted in different historiographical traditions. Our study has shown that Russian, Turkish and Western historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century so strongly depends on local traditions that we can say about three separate historiographies. Current situation is noticeable for the development of Circassian ‘auto-historiography’ which is characterised by ethnocentrism and victimisation due to the trends of counter-history. In spite of interaction between Russian, Turkish and Western historiographies, each of them was formed according to own logic of development. Thus, the misunderstandings in the terminology on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century (in particular, with the term ‘Caucasian War’) lean on the differences of historiographical traditions leading to the conflicts of interpretations.

Keywords:
Caucasus, North-Western Caucasus, Circassians, Caucasian War, Russian-Caucasian War, Russian-Circassian War, Historiography.

Literature Quotes:
Tsibenko V. The War which was not: Russian, Turkish and Western Historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th Century // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 42, Is. 4. Pp. 1148-1157.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


17.
2016.04.092. Smigel M., Cherkasov A. The Slavery in Circassia and the United States (1850–1860-ies years): General and Special // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 42, Is. 4. Pp. 1182-1197. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1480334412.pdf

Abstract:
The article provides a comparative analysis of slavery in Circassia and in the territory of the slave South in the United States in 1850–1860-ies years in the context of the fight against the slave trade and slavery in the world. The article discusses the Russian-American general trends for the prohibition of slavery and the slave trade. Among the materials are Russian and foreign archival sources, documents of personal origin (memoirs, diaries) of travelers as well as scientific research. The methodological basis of historicalcomparative study are the principles of objectivity and historicism, suggesting an unbiased approach to the analysis of the studied problems, a critical attitude to the sources, making judgments as a result of the analysis of a set of facts, and displays the slave of phenomena in the development and the context of the historical situation. In conclusion, the authors note that slavery and the slave position in the United States and the Circassia had their differences in 1850–1860-ies. Such differences included the inability of the transition to the United States from the status of a slave in the state of the dependent peasant, which was the norm in Circassia. In the United States the slaves were brought from outside, while in Circassia the slavery occurred in the region, mainly by trapping. At the root of discrimination in the United States was the racial principle, in Circassia this is based on the religious principle. The position of slaves had their similarities. A slave was powerless property of his master, there were certain unwritten rules governing the relationship, slave owners were reluctant to bring slaves to the extreme and etc. The important similarity between the US and Circassia was the presence of their territories with a strong slave system, where slaves constituted more than 30 % of the population. In the US, it was the territory of the slave-holding South, and in Circassia – the slaveholding Ubykhia.

Keywords:
slavery, Circassia, Russian Empire, the slave-owning South of the United States, historical-comparative study.

Literature Quotes:
Smigel M., Cherkasov A. The Slavery in Circassia and the United States (1850–1860-ies years): General and Special // Bylye Gody. 2016. Vol. 42, Is. 4. Pp. 1182-1197.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


18.
2016.04.093. Akopyan V.Z., Ermakov V.P., Milyaeva L.I. The Socio-Political Development of the Armenian National Raion (District) in the Kuban Area (1925-1953) // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2016. № 8. Pp. 345-362. Code https://www.cclbsebes.ro/docs/Sebus_8_2016/15_VZ_Akopyan%20et%20alii.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the Armenian raion (district) in the Kuban area - Krasnodar krai (territory) - set up in 1925 and liquidated in 1953. The ancestors of the local Armenians came from the the Armenian historical and cultural area of Hamshen, in the northeast of the Ottoman Empire, namely. Fleeing from the tyranny of the Turkish authorities and genocide, the Hamshen Armenians began to settle on the Caucasian coast of Russia from the second half of the nineteenth century. The Armenian raion was created by merging the Armenian villages of two other raions - Khadyzhen of the Maikop okrug (district) and Goryachy Klyuch of the Kuban okrug. The article explores the policy of “nationalization” (also known as indigenization) which among other things demanded the switching of clerical work by the various administrative and cultural bodies to the Armenian language. Due in part to conflicting interests among the various levels of administration both within the raion and above it, at the levels of okrug and krai, this switch never took place, and was eventually dropped as a policy by the Stalinist regime, which preferred to pursue a policy of unification and assimilation. Although the clerical switch never took place, there was a massive expansion of the raion’s schools network, bringing education in Armenian to 92% of its school-age children. Despite Stalin’s policy shift away from autonomous minority regions, an administrative entity, the Armenian raion outlived (in name, at least) many other national raions, perhaps in recognition of the huge sacrifices made by its population in the struggle against German occupation during the Second World War. Despite all the drawbacks of the Soviet regime, it can be said that the very existence of the Armenian raion promoted the preservation of the Armenian population’s self-awareness and identity, holding back the assimilation that dispersed ethnic groups in polyethnic raions are particularly subject to.

Keywords:
the North Caucasus krai, Krasnodar krai, the Kuban area, autonomy, national-territorial construction, national raion, the Hamshen Armenians.

Literature Quotes:
Akopyan V.Z., Ermakov V.P., Milyaeva L.I. The Socio-Political Development of the Armenian National Raion (District) in the Kuban Area (1925-1953) // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2016. № 8. Pp. 345-362.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


19.
2016.04.094. Gilyazov I. “Foreign people” in the perception of German scientists during the First World War: the Muslims of Russia as an object of study // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2016. № 8. Pp. 335-344. Code https://www.cclbsebes.ro/docs/Sebus_8_2016/15_I_Gilyazov.pdf

Abstract:
The term “foreign people” (“fremde Völker”) was used by Wilhelm Doegen after World War I, primarily to refer to the Tartar Muslim prisoners-of-war from the armies of the Entente who were used as objects of German propaganda during that military conflict. The politicians and the military had their own specific purposes for the Muslims: they intended to use them in an armed clash against England, France and Russia. At the same time, German academics had their own plans: to study this concentration of the representatives of “the exotic world” held on German territory to advance their scientific knowledge. The opportunity to study the Tartar Muslim population represented a rare opportunity northern European academia at that time, as at the beginning of the twentieth century contact with Muslims from the far eastern reaches of Russia was rare, and there was very little detailed knowledge the multiethnic and multi-confessional aspects of Russia. World War I offered German academics a chance to carry out “field” research among the prisoners of war held at the two “propaganda” camps near Berlin. Linguists, musicologists, anthropologists, ethnographers, legists and folklorists worked with the prisoners, and this unusual study resulted in many important publications on topics that were seriously underrepresented in European Humanities at that time. Wilhelm Doegen, Gotthold Weil, Georg Schünemann were among the academics working with these prisoners. G. Weil published a small but very important article called Die Tataren immediately after the end of the war, and later he published a book called Tatarische Texte. Thus, the war quite unexpectedly gave a stimulus to new trends in European anthropology.

Keywords:
World War I, prisoners of war, POW camps, Islam, Muslims, Tatars.

Literature Quotes:
Gilyazov I. “Foreign people” in the perception of German scientists during the First World War: the Muslims of Russia as an object of study // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2016. № 8. Pp. 335-344.
Number of views: 24      Download in PDF


20.
2016.04.095. Klasić H. The Tito-Stalin Football War // Journal of the Institute of Croatian History. 2016. Vol. 48. Pp. 387-404. Code file:///C:/Users/admin/Downloads/RZHP_48_24_KLASIC_387_404.pdf

Abstract:
After World War II socialist Yugoslavia became one of the most loyal USSR satellite states. The new government began to copy the Soviet Union in all aspects of society and government. An important element in the creation of a new socialist society was the attitude towards sport. In accordance with the Soviet model, the task of sport as part of physical education in Yugoslavia was to improve the working and defensive capabilities of citizens, where physical training was no longer the privilege of a minority but the obligation for everybody. However, despite the Soviet influence, different views on the recent events (i.e. the USSR’s role in the liberation of Yugoslavia) and a different vision of the future bilateral relations have led to a cooling of relations between the Soviet Union (along with other European communist countries) and Yugoslavia. During 1948 even armed intervention was considered as an option. Deteriorating diplomatic, political and economic relations also began to show at sport events. Yugoslav clubs were prohibited from participating in sport competitions that were already scheduled across Eastern Europe, and the culmination of this “sport war” took place at the Olympic Games in Helsinki in 1952. At these Olympics, the first for the USSR, Yugoslavia and the USSR played a match at the football tournament. Due to the situation at the time, it was not just a sport event, but a political event as well. The win of one or the other national team would mean the victory of the specific (Yugoslav or Soviet) concept of socialist development. Despite the global trends, Croatian historiography still lacks studies that contain research of interrelations between socio-political processes, sport events and sport in general. Collecting evidence from primary and secondary sources as well as the material based on oral history, the present paper provides a study of a specific sport event in the context of international political relations. Even though the research topic of Yugoslav-Soviet relations in the late 1940s and early 1950s is wellknown and well-researched, this approach provides a new dimension to it. Accordingly, the present paper aims to fill aRefereed Journal. History and Archaeology in Countries. 2016 №3 str research gap in Croatian historiography and is intended to serve as an inducement for further research in the field.

Keywords:
sport, Cold War, the 1952 Helsinki Olympics.

Literature Quotes:
Klasić H. The Tito-Stalin Football War // Journal of the Institute of Croatian History. 2016. Vol. 48. Pp. 387-404.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


21.
2016.04.096. Kukiaris Silas. Unknown Russian icons at the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified in Palestine and their iconography // Zograf. 2016. Vol. 40. Pp. 117-140. Code http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-1361/2016/0350-13611640117K.pdf

Abstract:
The Holy Lavra of St. Sabbas the Sanctified in Palestine houses twelve two-sided icons hereto unpublished in academic literature. All of these icons are identical in size and measure 28 × 22.5 cm, with a frame measuring another 2 cm, and originally had two incisions each. The bordure was painted red after they were framed except the icons depicting the Nativity-Baptism and AscensionPentecost, which have silver-colored edges, as the same color was used for their frames. All of these icons have inscriptions in the Russian recension of Old Church Slavonic set in red lettering, which are usually placed in the upper sections of the icons. According to their subject, these dozen two-sided icons can be classified into three groups, with the depicted events belonging to both movable and fixed feast cycles in the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar. The icon whose sides have been labeled 1a and 1b depicts scenes from the Life of the Virgin: Nativity of Mary and the Presentation of Mary into the Temple. The icons labeled 2–8a depict scenes from the Dodekaorton (Twelve Great Feasts). The icons labeled 8b–12 illustrate the weeks of the Pentecostarion. Icon no. 12 depicts the First Ecumenical Council (commemorated by the Orthodox Church on the seventh Sunday after Pascha, after the Sunday of the Blind Man) and the remaining six Ecumenical Councils. They also depict the Seventh Ecumenical Council (Second Council of Nicaea), observed by the Orthodox Church on the first Sunday of the Great Lent. This suggests that the icons discussed in this paper are not only identical in size, but also comprise a cycle of interconnected subjects. Iconographical subjects on the reverse sides of these icons are also interconnected in both the liturgical and heortological sense, but as a whole these twelve icons comprise a logical and rounded heortological-liturgical sequence. A brief overview of the history of relations between Palestinian monks of Slavic origin (primarily Serbs) with Russia could elucidate the time frame and circumstances in which these twelve icons made their way to the Monastery of St. Sabbas. The presence of Serbian monks from the Holy Land has been noted in Russia in the first half of the 16th century (from 1548 onwards) and the number of Serbs traveling to the Orthodox empire on alms collecting missions grew in time. In their efforts to consolidate the position of the Monastery of St. Sabbas the Sanctified and its metochion, the Monastery of the Holy Archangels, in the Holy Land, the Russian emperors and boyars from the imperial entourage sent funds to Palestine on their own initiative. However, after 1605 the conflicts at the imperial court severed the ties between Moscow and Slavic monks in Palestine. Due to these circumstances, the time frame for the creation and arrival of these twelve icons at the Monastery of St. Sabbas the Sanctified in Palestine should be limited to the period 1548–1605.

Literature Quotes:
Kukiaris Silas. Unknown Russian icons at the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified in Palestine and their iconography // Zograf. 2016. Vol. 40. Pp. 117-140.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


22.
2016.04.097. Korol S.M. Euroregional Cooperation On The Western Borders Of Ukraine During The Post-Socialist Period: Coverage Of The Issue By Ukrainian Researchers // Ancient Sumy Land. 2016. № ХLVІІІ. Pp. 78-86. Code http://starovyna.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/6-%D0%9A%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C.pdf

Abstract:
The author made an attempt to analyse the publication of Ukrainian scientists devoted to cross-border cooperation in the Central Europe region in the late XX - early XXI cent. Euroregions became the main and most common kind of cross-border cooperation during the post-socialist period. Western Ukraine belongs to the Baltic-Black Sea axis of Euroregional partnership. 5 Euroregions were created on the south-western borders of Ukraine: “Carpathian Euroregion” (Ukraine, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania), “Bug” (Ukraine, Poland, Belarus), “Upper Prut” (Ukraine, Moldova and Romania), “Lower Danube” (Ukraine, Moldova and Romania) and “Dniester” (Ukraine and Moldova). The theme of cross-border relations in the Central Europe region is relevant and interesting for the Ukrainian scientists. Now researches of political, economic, organizational, legal and environmental aspects of local Euroregions are dominated in the historiography of the issue. These works often have practical value and contribute to the search for ways to improve good-neighborly cooperation on the border. Recently, there are increasing retrospective scientific works. Ukrainian researchers used laws, international treaties and current documents in the public domain, as well as the official statistical materials and periodicals data as the primary sources for studying this theme.

Keywords:
cross-border cooperation, Central Europe, «Carpathian Euroregion», Euroregion “Bug”, Euroregion «Upper Prut», Euroregion «Lower Danube», Euroregion «Dniester», historiography.

Literature Quotes:
Korol S.M. Euroregional Cooperation On The Western Borders Of Ukraine During The Post-Socialist Period: Coverage Of The Issue By Ukrainian Researchers // Ancient Sumy Land. 2016. № ХLVІІІ. Pp. 78-86.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


23.
2016.04.098. Vlasenko V. M., Guzun V. The National-Democratic Environment Of Interwar Ukrainian Emigration In South-Eastern Europe // Ancient Sumy Land. 2016. № ХLVІІІ. Pp. 25-49. Code http://starovyna.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/2-%D0%92%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%BE.pdf

Abstract:
In three Balkan countries, Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia, in the period between the First and Second World Wars, the national democratic environment, represented by the State Center of UNR, was the most influential and numerous among Ukrainian political emigration. His representative in Romania was Professor K. Matsievich, the head of the extraordinary diplomatic mission of the UNR, Branch of the Ukrainian Society. In 1939, V. Trepke, Deputy Chief of Public and Assisting Committee, became the member of the Government of the UNR in emigration. Representatives of the Government of the UNR in Bulgaria were M. Parashchuk and Ya. Malinovsky, representatives of the Minister of Military Affairs of the UNR (in exile) in Romania - Colonel H. Porokhivsky, in the Balkans and in Turkey - Lieutenant V. Fylonovych. Poland provided the financial support to the Government of the UNR in exile, its representatives and public organizations of emigration in recipient countries. The majority of members of the Government of the UNR at the time of emigration and before World War II were members of the Ukrainian Radical and Democratic Party that has managed to build its network in Austria, Poland and Czechoslovakia in the interwar period. In Romania, it was represented first by K. Matsievich, and then by D. Levitsky. K. Matsievich was a member by the Central Committee, and in the 1930s he headed the Foreign Office. The periodical press of the party published articles of K. Matsievich about emigration in Romania. Offices of URDP did not exist in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. USDP carried out its public political work through the Ukrainian Republican Democratic Club in Prague. It brought together representatives of different political environments, but most members were the radical democrats. In 1928-1931, K. Matsievich was the Chairman of the council, after 1931 - Deputy Chairman. In addition to social, political, cultural and educational actions of emigration, the Club was engaged in the employment of its members, graduates of Ukrainian high schools and immigrants, including in Romania. K. Matsievich led Labour Bureau that was specially created for this purpose. In exile, the government of the UNR was under the control of the Secret Brotherhood of Ukrainian Statehood. In Ukraine, it was headed by S. Yefremov, in exile - B. Ivanitsky. The Brotherhood had an organizational structure. In the mid-1930s, its local branches-communities opened in Warsaw, Bucharest, Kalisz, Lviv, Paris, Prague and Podebrady. The Brotherhood included more than 100 people. Representatives of the national democratic environment of Ukrainian emigration in South-Eastern Europe participated in conferences of the Ukrainian Chief Emigration Council in 1929, 1932 and 1934 in Prague. D. Herodot, K. Matsievich and V. Fylonovych were members of the administrative board. The leader of Ukrainian political emigration in Romania K. Matsievich collaborated with Ukrainian Scientific Institute in Warsaw (UNI-W), which supported and substantiated the ideas of the UNR. In 1930-1931, he led the economic seminar of the Institute. At the meetings, he delivered reports and published scientific works about Ukrainian emigration in Romania. In 1930 and 1931, V. Trepke made two expeditions, with the material support UNI-W, to determine where Ivan Mazepa stayed in Romania. The most active and united adherents of the idea of the UNR were in Romania, where the Public and Assisting Committee united representatives of different political camps. In Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, its supporters headed a number of public organizations, but internal disputes gradually led to the loss of influence in the emigre environment.

Keywords:
Bulgaria, Brotherhood of Ukrainian Statehood, the State Center of the UNR, Romania, Ukrainian emigration, Ukrainian Radical and Democratic Party, Yugoslavia.

Literature Quotes:
Vlasenko V. M., Guzun V. The National-Democratic Environment Of Interwar Ukrainian Emigration In South-Eastern Europe // Ancient Sumy Land. 2016. № ХLVІІІ. Pp. 25-49.
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


24.
2016.04.099. Kvitnytskyi M.V. Shocks in the Western European Cumans’ Religious Culture in 13th —14th Centuries (by archaeological sources) // Stratum plus. 2016. № 6. Pp. 45-68. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Numismatics/STM_DWL_6Yq6_u1KHIZCAfVQJ.aspx

Abstract:
The paper considers the problem of radical changes in the religious (spiritual) culture of the Cumans populating the Eastern European steppes in the 13th —14th centuries. Using primarily archaeological data, it examines aspects of religious culture before the collision with the Mongols and the evidence of changes that took place after the Cuman conquest. The results indicate the spread of shamanism among the Cumans, which fully confirms the facts known from written accounts. After the collision with the Mongols in the 13th century, the Cumans completely changed their religious worldview by adopting the Western Christianity. Nomadic burial grounds and settlements of the Golden Horde period found in the Eastern European steppes suggest some missionary activities and regular divine servicesamong the nomads, and tell about a massive spread of Christianity. Individual finds of stone sculpture with Christian symbols and images of details of clothing typical of the second half of the 13th —14th centuries point to transitional and adaptational processes from the old beliefs towards Christian ideology. These findings fully align with the conclusions of studies into written accounts.

Keywords:
Eastern European steppes, Cumans, religion, shamanism, Christianity.

Literature Quotes:
Kvitnytskyi M.V. Shocks in the Western European Cumans’ Religious Culture in 13th —14th Centuries (by archaeological sources) // Stratum plus. 2016. № 6. Pp. 45-68.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


25.
2016.04.100. Prokop N. M. Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky in Ukrainian state formation in 20-30s years of XX century // Current Problems of State and Law. 2016. Is. 76. Pp. 159-163. Code http://www.apdp.in.ua/v76/24.pdf

Abstract:
The article studies actual peculiarities of public and state activity of the Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky, who started his activity in the period that is characterized by a rapid growth of Ukrainian national-liberation forces within Austria-Hungary and state-legal reforms carrying-out that had legally consolidated the right of the Ukrainian people to education, public use of Ukrainian language, organization of local authorities.

Keywords:
activity of Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky, Greek-Catholic church, public-state activity, national-state subjectivity

Literature Quotes:
Prokop N.M. Metropolitan A. Sheptytsky in Ukrainian state formation in 20-30s years of XX century // Current Problems of State and Law. 2016. Is. 76. Pp. 159-163.
Number of views: 26      Download in PDF


26.
full number
Number of views: 30      Download in PDF


© 2015, Refereed Journal: History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin