History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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1 March 21, 2017


1.
2017.01.001. Hadzhi-Murat A. Sabanchiev, Madina A. Tekueva, Zareta H. Soblirova, Anzhela A. Zhurtova. Conceptual Understanding of the Russian-Caucasian Relations in the XVI–XIX centuries in the Official Imperial Historiography // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 4-12. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1488815542.pdf

Abstract:
The domestic Caucasus Studies contains various, often conflicting concepts and approaches, claiming to be the most complete and objective coverage of issues of Russian-Caucasian historical interaction. Though in different studies, the same category is filled with a variety of semantic content that creates a discursive field requiring thorough scientific research. The article analyzes the research works of official direction of pre-revolutionary historiography devoted to the problem of relations between Russia and the North Caucasus in the XVI–XIX centuries. The disciplinary matrix of historical science of J. Ryuzen is used as an instrument of historiographical analysis in this research. This theoretical construct allowed to typologize and to conceptualize the prerevolutionary studies, to formulate criteria for selection of the conservative direction in the study of the Russian-Caucasian relations. The authors of the article relate the works of M.M. Shcherbatov, N.K. Karamzin, P.P. Zubov, R.А. Fadeev, A.P. Berge, N.F. Dubrovin, V.A. Potto, D.N. Dubenskiy, I. Ivanin, S.S. Esadze et al to the research works of the official direction of the pre-revolutionary historical thought. The cognitive interest of this group of researchers is caused by the search for the most effective ways of conquest and managing the North Caucasian peoples. Caucasus war was examined by the researchersconservatives as the process of strengthening the position of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus region justified from a historical and geopolitical point of view. The official approach supposed the civilizational motivation for the particular military conquest of the North Caucasus societies, deprived of citizenship and social order. The authors conclude that the research works of the conservative direction of imperial historiography solve important problems of legitimation of the Russian policy in the North Caucasus.

Keywords:
historiography, official direction, Russia, North Caucasus, citizenship, the Caucasian war, conquest, the disciplinary matrix.

Literature Quotes:
Hadzhi-Murat A. Sabanchiev, Madina A. Tekueva, Zareta H. Soblirova, Anzhela A. Zhurtova. Conceptual Understanding of the Russian-Caucasian Relations in the XVI–XIX centuries in the Official Imperial Historiography // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 4-12.
Number of views: 12      Download in PDF


2.
2017.01.002. Maxim N. Krot, Sergey V. Chernicin, Oksana O. Zavyalova. The Patriotic Enthusiasm during the Crimean War (1853–1856) аs a Factor of Modernization Turn in Russia // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 103-111. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1488816256.pdf

Abstract:
Since ancient times, the war for the states were not only way to solve foreign policy problems, a source of enrichment and strengthening of its position in the world. Armed conflicts have been and continue to be an essential element of internal policy factor that has huge impact on the social life, which is capable both added to the existing political regime, and crush him. With the growth of national consciousness that took place in Europe in the era of modern times, the society ceases to be a silent participant in armed confrontations, actively expressing your opinion by supporting or condemning the actions of their government. It is well known that the Crimean War was a turning point in the domestic policy of Russia in the XIX century, demonstrating the backwardness of Russia from the European powers, and triggering a wave of criticism of the previous political system, which largely pushed the authorities to carry out the Great Reforms. However, the problem remains littlestudied effect of this war on Russian society, and it caused her a patriotic enthusiasm, which had a variety of manifestations: from the wide volunteerism and financial donations to the army to develop the concept of the country's transformation. The surge of patriotism era of the Crimean War was the initial phase of a broad social and political upswing that has gripped Russian society in the second half of the 1850-s and contributed to a new stage of modernization of the country. The article is devoted to the problem of beginning, especially major manifestations and forms of patriotic enthusiasm.

Keywords:
Russian Empire, Crimean War, patriotic enthusiasm, Nicholas I, public opinion, Slavophiles, Westernizers, modernization.

Literature Quotes:
Maxim N. Krot, Sergey V. Chernicin, Oksana O. Zavyalova. The Patriotic Enthusiasm during the Crimean War (1853–1856) аs a Factor of Modernization Turn in Russia // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 103-111.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


3.
2017.01.003. Alla G. Vazerova, Ramin A. Gurbanov, Natalya V. Mickу. The Crimean War (1855–1856): the Combat Operations in Rioni Region // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 112-120. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1488816318.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the fighting in the Rioni region in the period of the Crimean war, 1855-1856 years. The attention is paid to the climatic and geographical description of the territory where the fighting took place. Rioni region was a secondary theater of operations during the Crimean war. The task of the allied troops consisted of having landed in Abkhazia to start a vigorous attack on Kutais and Tiflis in order to divert the Russian army from the besieging of the Kars fortress. Among the materials are the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia). The scientific publications on the topic of the study, published in pre-revolutionary and modern periods, have a significant importance. The authors conclude that the airborne operation in Rioni region began in the best terms for the allies, but the slowness of the Turkish troops and the active defense of russian led to delays in the operation before the onset of autumn rains. As a result of deterioration of the sanitary situation the landing operation was terminated without reaching the success.

Keywords:
Crimean war, combat operations, Rioni region, 1855.

Literature Quotes:
Alla G. Vazerova, Ramin A. Gurbanov, Natalya V. Mickу. The Crimean War (1855–1856): the Combat Operations in Rioni Region // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 112-120.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


4.
2017.01.004. Lyubov G. Polyakova, Anna A. Ostrovskaya, Svetlana Yu. The Agriculture and Industry of the Black Sea Province at the beginning of the 20th century // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 209-217. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1488816637.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the economic development of the Black sea province at the beginning of the XX century. The attention is paid to the development of agriculture, industry, food security of the population. As sources there were used the materials of pre-revolutionary periodical press of the Black sea province, namely: "Sochinskii listok" and "Severnyi Kavkaz". Also there were used the material from the prerevolutionary guidebooks and handbooks. While solving the tasks there were used the general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization), and traditional methods of historical analysis. The authors applied the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied era in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. This is particularly important when studying such sources as periodicals. In conclusion, it is noted that the concentration of wage labor in the industrial production of the Black sea province characterized by the considerable irregularity. The Novorossiysk district was the most industrialized one and had a significant layer of not only urban but also the proletariat, the other two (Sochi and Tuapse) were essentially peasant.

Keywords:
Black sea province, agriculture, industry, food security, the beginning of XX century.

Literature Quotes:
Lyubov G. Polyakova, Anna A. Ostrovskaya, Svetlana Yu. The Agriculture and Industry of the Black Sea Province at the beginning of the 20th century // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 209-217.
Number of views: 8      Download in PDF


5.
2017.01.005. Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Michal Smigel, Violetta S. Molchanova. The Losses of the Russian Army during the Caucasian War (1801–1864): Historical and Statistical Research // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 68-85. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1489387249.pdf

Abstract:
The article reflects the data obtained from official documents published by the military historical department at the headquarter of the Caucasian military district about the Russian army losses in the period of the Caucasian War 1801–1864 years. There were used the materials of personal origin, pre-revolutionary research and modern scientific publications. The analyzed statistics includes the data about the losses of Russian army over the years with the release of different positions: the irretrievable losses of officers and lower ranks with the division of them on reflection of highlanders’ attacks and military operations; sanitary losses; loss of prisoners. The article separately identifies from a statistical array the losses of officers, natives of the Caucasus, who served in the Russian army; the losses in the suppression of uprisings and unrest. Based on the analyzed data, the authors examined and compared the two stages of the Caucasian War: 1801– 1836 and 1837–1864 years. The statistics of losses is analyzed in the context of specific historical events.

Keywords:
Caucasian war, losses, theater of operations, slave trade, attacks, military operations, stages of the war, ethnonyms, 1801–1864.

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Michal Smigel, Violetta S. Molchanova. The Losses of the Russian Army during the Caucasian War (1801–1864): Historical and Statistical Research // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 43, Is. 1. Pp. 68-85.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


6.
2017.01.006. Marina V. Pyatikova. The History of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Don Region: the Contemporary Historiography of the Problem // Russkaya Starina. 2017. Vol. 8, Is. 1. Pp. 5-33. Code http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1499683931.pdf

Abstract:
The article provides a historiographic review of publications on the history of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Don region (Rostov region). A problem analysis of the works, published to date shows that this direction began to be developed in 2010 by a limited number of researchers. However, for a short period of time they were affected, and to some extent developed almost all the directions of this problem for the period from the XVIII century until the 1960s. XX century: the historiography of the religious organizations in the South of Russia; the problem of churchterritorial division; the early period of church history in the Don region; Social activities of the parishes of the Don diocese and parish clergy; an analysis of the parish clergy of the Don and Novocherkassk diocese as estates of the Russian Empire; the social service and charitable activities of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Don during the years of the First World War; the history of temples; analysis of church-state relations in the 1920s and 1930s; the anti-church actions in 1923; the churches and prayer buildings closure; the confiscation of church values; the problem of church schisms in the Don region; the repression of the clergy in the 1920s and 1930s; the church life in the Rostov region during the Great Patriotic War, in the post-war period and during the “Khrushchev thaw”; the problem of the cultural heritage of the region understanding. The prerevolutionary period of the Russian Orthodox Church history has been covered by many scientific papers and monographs. In 2013–2015 have been published the collections of documents and materials on history of the Russian Ortodox Church under the Soviets. The analysis of publications showes that in a short time a historiography, which includes comprehension of all the main directions of the problem, was created.

Keywords:
historiography, history of the Russian Orthodox Church, Don Region, Rostov region.

Literature Quotes:
Marina V. Pyatikova. The History of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Don Region: the Contemporary Historiography of the Problem // Russkaya Starina. 2017. Vol. 8, Is. 1. Pp. 5-33.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


7.
2017.01.007. Alexey A. Volvenko. Don Atamans of the Age of “Great Reforms” (the 1860s – 1870s) // Russkaya Starina. 2017. Vol. 8, Is. 1. Pp. 34-54. Code http://ejournal15.com/journals_n/1499684132.pdf

Abstract:
In article analyzes the positions and opinions of two Don Host atamans, P.Kh. Grabbe and A.L. Potapov, on the most important aspects of the government policy, carried out in the Don during the age of “Great reforms”. Their approach to administration is investigated through the comparison of the results of their activity. The article discovers the significance and consequences of steps, taken by atamans to resolve the key issues of social, political and economic development of the Oblast of the Don Cossack Host in the 1860s.

Keywords:
“Great reforms”, Cossacks, Don Cossack Host, Army Acting Ataman, P.Kh. Grabbe, A.L. Potapov.

Literature Quotes:
Alexey A. Volvenko. Don Atamans of the Age of “Great Reforms” (the 1860s – 1870s) // Russkaya Starina. 2017. Vol. 8, Is. 1. Pp. 34-54.
Number of views: 12      Download in PDF


8.
2017.01.008. Vladimir I. Afanasenko. The Peninsula of the Southern Front in the July offensive of 1943 // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2017. Vol. 4, Is. 1. Pp. 4-9. Code http://ejournal36.com/journals_n/1501757353.pdf

Abstract:
July 28 marks the 75th anniversary of the publication of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief I.V. Stalin's order No. 227, known as the order "No step back!". In the history of the Great Patriotic War and in the consciousness of Soviet citizens, he entered as an order "Not a step back!". In the last paragraph, it was especially emphasized: "The order to read in all companies, squadrons, batteries, squadrons, commands, staffs". Under this order, the acting army created penalty units. Within each front, from 1 to 3 penalty battalions were formed for the guilty middle and senior commanders and the corresponding political workers of all combat arms. Within the combined arms army – from 5 to 10 penalty mouths, which sent ordinary soldiers and junior commanders. Penalties, as stressed in Order No. 227, should be placed "on more difficult sectors of the front, to enable them to redeem their crimes against the Motherland." In mid-July 1943, at the height of the Battle of Kursk, the South Front fines took part in the breakthrough of the enemy's powerful defensive line, created at the heights of the western bank of the river. Mius. About statistics of losses of penal units in the July offensive operation of the Southern Front – in this article.

Keywords:
The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, the Southern Front, penal companies, losses of personnel.

Literature Quotes:
Vladimir I. Afanasenko. The Peninsula of the Southern Front in the July offensive of 1943 // Journal of International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research. 2017. Vol. 4, Is. 1. Pp. 4-9.
Number of views: 8      Download in PDF


9.
2017.01.009. Veselov F.N. From Crimea To The Carpathians: Foreign Sources On Batu’s Military Operations In 1238–1241 On The West Of The Cuman Steppe // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 67-79. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1561&article_id=34875

Abstract:
The article examines the complex of Batu Khan’s military operations in 1238–1241 in the west of the Cuman Steppe and Subcarpathia that led to the retreat and migration of the Cumans to Crimea and Hungary. Having analysed a number of Eastern and Latin sources, the author concludes that the meeting of King Bela IV with the Horde of a Cuman Khan Köten took place on the territory of the Cuman episcopate, where Khan Köten adopted Chistianity. The name and main activity of the eparchy explain the maneuver of Buczek’s unit belonging to the Southern wing of the Batu’s army that attacked South Moldavia and Walachia. This maneuver was described not only in a number of documents dated by the 13th century, but also in the legends about the foundation of the Moldavian state dated by the 16th–17th centuries.

Keywords:
Mongol Invasion of Europe, Cuman Steppe, Southern Moldavia, Subcarpathia, Cuman eparchy, Crimea.

Literature Quotes:
Veselov F.N. From Crimea To The Carpathians: Foreign Sources On Batu’s Military Operations In 1238–1241 On The West Of The Cuman Steppe // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 67-79.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


10.
2017.01.010. Sulyak S.G. The Ethnonym Rus In The Anthroponymics Of Medieval Moldavia // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 80-91. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1561&article_id=34876

Abstract:
The Rusins made up a significant part of the population in the Moldavian principality, which was reflected in the Moldavian medieval diplomacy. The acts of the Gospodar Chancellery contain a large number of names and nicknames of the East Slavic origin. The widely spread anthroponyms with the root rus- give evidence of the ethnic origin of their bearers. The bearers of names and nicknames with the root rus- can be met in the documents throughout the whole history of the Moldavian principality. These people were represented in all social classes. Nowadays the surname Rusu (from Rus – Russian) is the most common in the Republic of Moldova, which is part of the former Moldavian medieval principality. By the beginning of 2011, there were 23 028 people with this surname there.

Keywords:
Rusins, Rusyns, Russian, anthroponyms, medieval acts, Moldavia, Galician Rus.

Literature Quotes:
Sulyak S.G. The Ethnonym Rus In The Anthroponymics Of Medieval Moldavia // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 80-91.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


11.
2017.01.011. Russev N.D. Trans-Danubian Migrants In Moldavian Documents Of The Late 18th – Early 19th Centuries // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 111-121. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1561&article_id=34879

Abstract:
The article analyses the content of a score of documents dated by 1793–1806 which were composed on behalf of the Moldovan gentlemen in connection with the so-called Trans-Danubian migrants, who are called Serbs in the documents. It turns out that this refers to the Bulgarians who left their native places for various reasons and settled in Moldova as “Rupta de Wisteria”, a social group with taxable benefits. Most of the settlers were market-oriented, so they settled in Chișinău and near this trading post. The migration from the right to the left bank of the Danube was mutually beneficial for the settlers and Moldovan rulers.

Keywords:
Trans-Danubian settlers, Bulgarians, Serbs, Moldavia, Ottoman Empire, “Khan Ukraine”, Budzhak, rayah, Chișinău, “Rupta de Wisteria”.

Literature Quotes:
Russev N.D. Trans-Danubian Migrants In Moldavian Documents Of The Late 18th – Early 19th Centuries // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 111-121.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


12.
2017.01.012. Morozan V.V. Attempts Of The Polish Nobility (Szlachta) To Become Part Of The Bessarabian Nobility In The First Half Of The 19th Century // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 132-153. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1561&article_id=34881

Abstract:
The article deals with the complex process of recognising the rights of the Polish nobility (szlachta) living in Bessarabia. Active migration of Polish gentry to the right bank of the Prut began after the Russian army had entered Moldavian principality and intensified after signing the Treaty of Bucharest. However, the formation of Bessarabian nobility after 1812 faced many challenges, which hampered the procedure of recognition of nobility rights for the majority of the newly arrived Polish noblemen. Only few of them could join the highest social class of the region. Although in the first decade after Bessarabia’s accession to Russia the authorities repeatedly entitled various institutions with the obligation to consider petitions from Polish gentry for recognition of their nobility rights, officials evaded this duty in every possible way. It should be underlined that it was regional bureaucracy, rather than the throne policy. Thus, a large group of Polish nobility who settled in Bessarabia had to deal with a complete indifference of local officials. However, the author emphasises that the Polish nobility succeeded in Bessarabia. They were active buying lands and building up their careers. Having high educational qualification, they could be engaged in the judiciary system, Governor’s Office and other prestigious places.

Keywords:
social group, nobility, class, history of Russia of the 19th century, Polish szlachta.

Literature Quotes:
Morozan V.V. Attempts Of The Polish Nobility (Szlachta) To Become Part Of The Bessarabian Nobility In The First Half Of The 19th Century // Rusin, 2017. № 1 (47). Pp. 132-153.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


13.
2017.01.013. Iarmulschi V. Reflections On The Settlements Attributed To The Poienești-Lucașeuca Culture // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2017. No. 4. Vol.1. Pp. 29-46. Code http://jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/233/182

Abstract:
We shall discuss herein the Poienești-Lucașeuca culture settlements. To date, in central and northern Moldavia there were identified approximately 200 archaeological sites, deemed Poienești-Lucașeuca type settlements. Approximately 40% were systematically excavated or examined by sondages, the other being known only by field research. Within the settlements investigated by archaeological excavations there were found several archaeological features: houses, fire installations, pits, “workshops“, outbuildings, cult pits and features.

Keywords:
the East-Carpathian forest steppe, the recent pre-Roman Iron Age, the Poienești-Lucașeuca culture, habitat sites.

Literature Quotes:
Iarmulschi V. Reflections On The Settlements Attributed To The Poienești-Lucașeuca Culture // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2017. No. 4. Vol.1. Pp. 29-46.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


14.
2017.01.014. Ștefan M.M., Sîrbu V., Ștefan D. Tumuli, Roads And Plots. Decoding The Monumental Funerary Space Of The 4th-3rd Centuries Bc Kallatis // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2017. No. 4. Vol.1. Pp. 52-84. Code http://jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/218/184

Abstract:
The study focusses on the monumental elements of the 4th-3rd centuries BC cemeteries of Kallatis: the use of large tumuli, the implementation of a systematized network of funerary plots, the extent of the burial grounds, the discovery of a series of built chamber tombs under tumuli with elements of decorated architecture, including mural paintings and exceptional presence of a statue topping a tumulus. The detection and morphological characterisation of archaeological features and the recovering of the funerary landscapes’ spatial layout were based on historiographic study, remote-sensing and geophysical investigations.

Keywords:
Western Black Sea, Greek colony, tumuli, funerary plots, geophysics, aerial archaeology.

Literature Quotes:
Ștefan M.M., Sîrbu V., Ștefan D. Tumuli, Roads And Plots. Decoding The Monumental Funerary Space Of The 4th-3rd Centuries Bc Kallatis // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2017. No. 4. Vol.1. Pp. 52-84.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


15.
2017.01.015. Bounegru G., Varga R. Toy Fragments Discovered In Northern Vicus Of Războieni-Cetate (Alba County) // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2017. No. 4. Vol.1. Pp. 47-51. Code http://jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/230/183

Abstract:
The current paper presents a few Roman toys discovered at Războieni-Cetate; more precisely, we are dealing with two Risi statuettes and fragments from three pull toys. The artefacts were found in civilian, presumably domestic, contexts in the northern part of the vicus and most probably are products of local officinae.

Keywords:
Roman toys, military vicus, Risus.

Literature Quotes:
Bounegru G., Varga R. Toy Fragments Discovered In Northern Vicus Of Războieni-Cetate (Alba County) // Journal of Ancient History and Archeology. 2017. No. 4. Vol.1. Pp. 47-51.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


16.
2017.01.016. Shamaev A.M. Genesis the Specifics of the Islamization the North Caucasus // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2017.Vol. 15. Is. 1. Pp. 23-29. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1499200682.pdf

Abstract:
The problem of the Genesis and subsequent development of Islam in a particular ethnically complex region, which is the North Caucasus, still remains unexplored. In Russian historical science in the Caucasus are wonderfully tenacious and almost not remeasured standards developed in the Soviet era, according to which Islam penetrates to the Caucasus very late (almost in the century XVIII), and this procedure is a rather negative for the people's culture, rather than a positive direction. Therefore, the author departs from the existing dies and considers the problem from the standpoint of objectivity, consistency and historicism. The chronological scope of the article is conventional and is motivated by the fact that the initial penetration of Islam in the North Caucasus dates back to the VII century, when the Arabs invaded Dagestan, the upper limit of work consists of century XIX, when fully completed, the adoption of this religion mountain peoples and Islam in its various sects firmly established in the North Caucasus. The author comes to the conclusion that the process of Islamisation of the mountain peoples of the North Caucasus region was due to the prevailing political situation in the region and outside it; the Islamic faith in the North Caucasus had never had their own roots, and was brought in from outside, alien conquerors; the degree of illisionist the mountain peoples was different: in the Eastern parts of the Caucasus (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Dagestan) Islam deeply penetrated into the consciousness of the people, in their behavioral norms than in Western (Kabarda, Cherkessia, Adygea).

Keywords:
North Caucasus mountain peoples, Islam, Genesis, ethnic picture, Arab migrants, the Turkish conquerors, the political situation

Literature Quotes:
Shamaev A.M. Genesis the Specifics of the Islamization the North Caucasus // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2017.Vol. 15. Is. 1. Pp. 23-29.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


17.
2017.01.017. Khachidogov R.A. Problems of Development of Education of Muslims of Terek Region (second half of XIX – beginning of XX centuries) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2017. Vol. 15. Is 1. Pp. 30-36. Code http://ejournal3.com/journals_n/1499200727.pdf

Abstract:
Abstract Education is one of the priority directions of the state policy of Russia. This fact demonstrates the increasing attention to the development of the education system, including the Muslim, which has a long and distinctive history. Therefore, the study of the socio-cultural role of education among Muslims in a large region of the Russian Empire and its development through the prism of the past is an urgent and overdue. In article on the basis of newly introduced archival sources examines the state of Muslim education in the Terek region in the second half of XIX – early XX centuries Proved that from the mid-nineteenth century saw the rapid growth of education among the Muslim peoples of the North Caucasus. The conclusions drawn are that in this period there was a quantitative and qualitative growth of educational institutions for Muslim children, however education needed significant adjustment due to the low number of educational institutions and lack of slender educational base.

Keywords:
North Caucasus, Muslim education, the development of schools, Islam, Terek oblast, mountain peoples.

Literature Quotes:
Khachidogov R.A. Problems of Development of Education of Muslims of Terek Region (second half of XIX – beginning of XX centuries) // History and Historians in the Context of the Time. 2017. Vol. 15. Is 1. Pp. 30-36.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


18.
2017.01.018. Rebaz R. Khdir. The International State Responsibility for the Acts of Terrorist Groups: the Case of Turkey and Islamic State in Iraq And Syria // Russian Journal of Legal Studies. 2017. Vol 4. Is. 1.Pp. 32-43. Code http://ejournal25.com/journals_n/1498129972.pdf

Abstract:
ISIS is a radical Islamic group which has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, European Union and most of the world states. However, the ISIS roots trace back to the beginning of 2000s, the group adopted the name of Islamic State in Iraq and Syria in 2013. ISIS gained significant military successes in Iraq and Syria between 2013 and 2014 because it captured vast swaths of the Iraqi and Syrian territory in which established an Islamic Caliphate. During the military attacks in Iraq and Syria, ISIS committed many atrocities that amount to serious international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The international media and intelligent agencies have gathered many evidences that demonstrate undeniable links between ISIS and some states including Turkey. Under International law, the use of force is considered international wrongful act except in self-defence. As states are a political entities and function through agents and organs, they are normally responsible for the wrongful acts of their official agents and organs. However, the wrongful acts of private groups are also attributable to states when the groups are equated with state actors or when states support or harbor the groups. The available evidences, however, do not prove that ISIS is under the control of and directed by Turkey, they do prove that Turkey has provided ISIS with military cooperation, transferring weapons, medical treatment of the wounded fighters and financial assistance through illegal oil trade. This article discusses the international responsibility of Turkey for the ISIS acts.

Keywords:
International law, Turkey, ISIS, State actor, private group, international wrongful act, International responsibility.

Literature Quotes:
Rebaz R. Khdir. The International State Responsibility for the Acts of Terrorist Groups: the Case of Turkey and Islamic State in Iraq And Syria // Russian Journal of Legal Studies. 2017. Vol 4. Is. 1.Pp. 32-43.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


19.
2017.01.019. Smigel M. Propaganda Raids of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Slovakia (Czechoslovakia) in 1945–1946: Structure and Forms of Czechoslovak Resistance // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 24-51. Code http://ejournal47.com/journals_n/1497684807.pdf

Abstract:
The Ukrainian insurgent army, which operated in western Ukraine and south-eastern Poland during the World War II – from 1942 onwards, continued in its actions during the post-war years but it slightly altered its mission. The leaders of the Ukrainian underground movement expected that a political conflict would start between the actors of the anti-Hitler coalition and that a new armed conflict would start between the West and the Soviet Union. This, they thought, would mark the end of the Soviet regime in Eastern Europe. In this situation the Ukrainian underground encouraged the Soviet Union republics and countries of middle and south-eastern Europe, to a united armed conflict against bolshevism. This was to be done in the so called: Front of Enslaved and Endangered Nations of Middle and Eastern Europe. To practically realize these aims the Ukrainian insurgent units undertook several propaganda raids during 1945–1950 into Belarus, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and into the Baltic states (Lithuania). These raids were a new form of anti-Soviet activities and struggle of the Ukrainian insurgent army during the post-war years. Czechoslovakia was one of the main targets for these raids, which took place in three phases: August – September 1945, April 1946 (both in eastern Slovakia) and the so called: Great raid through the republic into the American zone in Germany during June – October/November 1947, which also had a profound international response. This paper focuses on first two raids of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Slovakia in 1945 – 1946, analyzes them from the viewpoint of forms and methods of the struggle and analyzes the structure and forms of the elimination by the Czechoslovak security forces.

Keywords:
Ukrainian Insurgent Army, propaganda raids, anti-communist activities, antiSoviet resistance, Czechoslovak army, Czechoslovak security organs, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia.

Literature Quotes:
Smigel M. Propaganda Raids of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Slovakia (Czechoslovakia) in 1945–1946: Structure and Forms of Czechoslovak Resistance // Propaganda in the World and Local Conflicts. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 24-51.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


20.
2017.01.020. Muzaffer Başkaya. Promotional Advertising and Propaganda Activities Carried out in Foreign Countries in the First Years of the Turkish Republic // International Journal of History. 2017. Vol. 9. Is. 1. Pp. 47-65. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//cumhuriyetin-ilk-yillarinda-turkiyenin-dis-ulkelerde-yuruttugu-tanitim-ve-propaganda-faaliyetleri201703fa52ac8.pdf

Abstract:
The founding cadre of the Republic of Turkey who had taken lesson from the previous experience employed various methods in order to introduce the newly-established regime to the world public opinion. In accordance to this purpose, media in the countries on a line extending from Western Europe to China, Russia and Cyprus were helped financially mostly from the public funds. In order to introduce Turkish culture and music, committees were sent to the above-mentioned areas and they participated in organizations such as exhibitions and so on. Moreover, the Turkish and Islamic geographiers carrying a torch for Turkey were contacted, new Turkish letters were introduced, and great efforts were made to maintain cultural interaction with the above mentioned regions. Thus, the new regime was introduced in the different parts of the world and it was ensured that people living in these regions warmheartedly remained close to the Republic of Turkey.

Keywords:
Introduction, Newspaper, Aid, Culture, Exhibition, Concert

Literature Quotes:
Muzaffer Başkaya. Promotional Advertising and Propaganda Activities Carried out in Foreign Countries in the First Years of the Turkish Republic // International Journal of History. 2017. Vol. 9. Is. 1. Pp.47-63.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


21.
2017.01.021. Sabri Becerikli, Muammer Demirel. Teachers’ Schools In Bursa Inherıted By The Republıc From The Ottoman Empıre (1883-1975) // International Journal of History. 2017. Vol. 9. Is. 1. Pp. 66-85. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//osmanlidan-cumhuriyet-bursasina-miras-kalan-ogretmen-okullari-1883-1975201703d54a42a.pdf

Abstract:
The first male teacher training school (darülmuallimin) in Bursa was opened in 1883. The school had one teacher, one servant, and a few students. As the number of students was few in provincial male teacher training schools, it was projected to assign the duty of training teachers to teachers’ school that would be opened under the name of Medrese-i Muallimin School. In 1906, Bursa Hamidiye Medrese-i Muallimin School was opened, and the staff of Bursa Male Teacher Training School was transferred to it. However, it did not last long. In the Second Constitutional Period, Teachers’ School was transformed into Male Teacher Training School. This male teachers’ school, which also maintained its existence during the period of the Republic of Turkey, was named Erkek Muallim Mektepi (Male Teachers’ School) in 1924. It was closed after 1926. Most provincial female teacher training schools started opening in 1914-15. Bursa Female Teacher Training School was opened in 1914. The school, which had longer lifetime than Bursa Male Teacher Training School, was named Kız İlk Öğretmen Okulu (Female Primary Teacher Training School) in the Republic period and was finally transformed into Female Teacher Training High School in 1975.

Keywords:
Bursa, education, teacher training school, darülmuallimin, darülmuallimat.

Literature Quotes:
Sabri Becerikli, Muammer Demirel. Teachers’ Schools In Bursa Inherıted By The Republıc From The Ottoman Empıre (1883-1975) // International Journal of History. 2017. Vol. 9. Is. 1. Pp. 66-85.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


22.
2017.01.022. Filiz Dığıroğlu. Religious Publishing in Abdulhamid II Era: Who Produces the Islamic Texts? // // International Journal of History. 2017. Vol. 9. Is. 1. Pp. 85-110. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//ii-abdulhamid-doneminde-dini-yayincilik-islami-metinleri-kim-uretir-i20170311d58d6.pdf

Abstract:
Proliferation of printing press in the Ottoman society caused an increase in state monitoring and control of publishing. Within the framework of the press policies of the Abdülhamid II era, the existing control mechanisms were operated in a more organized and professionalized manner during the publication of both religious and non-religious texts. Distorting religious books, pulling the books off the shelves and burning them out were considered among the reasons behind Abdulhamid II's dethronement. This article examines the ways in which the publication of religious books played a key role and the means the state took part in this process of publication during the reign of Abdulhamid II. These control mechanisms have not been examined from the viewpoint of actors (writers and publishers) of the religious publishing yet. This study will be based on the interlocutors of the control mechanisms, and aims to give a different perspective to the criticized printing policies of the period of Abdülhamid II era. This article tries to determine the identities of the actors, the texts they wanted to publish and answers the question whether the control mechanism approveed publication of these texts or not. The main aim of this article is to find out the authors of the religious texts/books. This problematic is related to the question of which religious texts were allowed to be published by the state and to what kind of publications state offered incentives. This article examines the data derived from the registers of the Concultation Commission (Tedkik-i Müellefat Heyeti) in Bâb-ı Fetva between 1889 and 1906. The annual demand for publication of religious books and the course of this demand in the above mentioned period are presented according to registers. Moreover, the demands from both the countryside and the center have been taken into account without making a distinction between the successful and the unsuccessful ones in obtaining printing license to make a more clear and complete description of the religious publications of the Abdülhamid II era.

Keywords:
Abdulhamid II, Giritli Sırrı Pasha, Meşihat (Ministry of the Şeyhulislam), printing, state control

Literature Quotes:
Filiz Dığıroğlu. Religious Publishing in Abdulhamid II Era: Who Produces the Islamic Texts? // // International Journal of History. 2017. Vol. 9. Is. 1. Pp. 85-110.
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


23.
2017.01.023. Koukoudakis G. Authoritarianism in Turkey: From “Kemalism to Erdoganism” via Democratic Reforms and Economic Development //Romanian Journal of History and International Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 63-101. Code http://rjhis.ro/ojs/index.php/rjhis/article/view/27/7

Abstract:
During the 1990s,Turkish society experienced political instability and freedom deficiencies that were followed by a financial crisis in 2001. The socio-political and economic conditions were quite similar to those that sparked the Arab uprisings in late 2010 and,thus,they could have well led Turkey to disarray. The reforms introduced by the Justice and Development Party (AKP) during the 2000sare considered the main reasons why the Turkish state was “rescued”. Since then, however, a series of governmental policies have reversed this process and givenrise to a situation where Turkish politics are reminiscent of “old Turkey”, albeit under a different ideological veil.

Keywords:
Turkey, reforms, democratization, authoritarianism, dead-end

Literature Quotes:
Koukoudakis G. Authoritarianism in Turkey: From “Kemalism to Erdoganism” via Democratic Reforms and Economic Development / Romanian Journal of History and International Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 63-101.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


24.
2017.01.024. Doroudian M. The Romanian Intellectual, Christian Orthodoxy, and Identity in connection to Iron Guardism // Romanian Journal of History and International Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 7-34. Code http://rjhis.ro/ojs/index.php/rjhis/article/view/25/6

Abstract:
As the second part of a two part series, this article explores the confluence of Romanian intellectual culture and the rise of fascism in the interwar period, with a distinct concentration on the particularity of Romanian identity and its transformation amid the changing rhetoric of pluri nationality. Ultimately the process by which a concrete Romanian identity was formed within the rhetoric of intellectuals was the result of elements of differing views of nationality, the Romanian peasantry, and Christian Orthodoxy all of which were salient elements of Romanian society during the rise of extremists groups such as the Iron Guard. In this second part I explore the way that the Jewish population, and Jewish identity in Romania was used by intellectuals to define Romanian identity by positing that in fact it was the complete opposite of ‘Romanianism’ as it was defined by the rhetoric of the intelligentsia, which manifested itself in the rise of Iron Guard. The ideals of ‘race,’ and ‘ethnicity’ were therefore paradoxes for many Romanian thinkers and writers.

Keywords:
identity, intellectuals, MihailSebastian, OttoWeininger, IronGuard

Literature Quotes:
Doroudian M. The Romanian Intellectual, Christian Orthodoxy, and Identity in connection to Iron Guardism // //Romanian Journal of History and International Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 7-34.
Number of views: 10      Download in PDF


25.
2017.01.025. Cazacu E. Ion Antonescu’s regime during September 1940 – June 1941. Measures taken to regain the lost provinces in the summer of 1940 // Romanian Journal of History and International Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 103-124. Code http://rjhis.ro/ojs/index.php/rjhis/article/view/20/8

Abstract:
The impact produced by events occurring in the international arena in 1939 were felt by Romania starting with the summer of 1940 when the country was forced to give up without a fight the Romanian provinces acquired in 1918. Consequences were not only social and economic, but also political, causingKing Carol IIabdication in favour of his son, Mihaiand the investment with full powers to run the Romanian state of GeneralIon Antonescu.Understanding the impact produced by the summer raptures in 1940 among the Romanian population, Antonescu decidedto establish as main objective for both the foreign policy and the domestic one the recovery of these territories. Given hisdecision to participate in the summer of 1941 in the war against USSR, the present study aims to present different measures taken by hisregime during September 1940 – June 1941to regain the lost provinces.

Keywords:
Antonescu’s regime, Romanian provinces, territorial losses, administrative measures, Bukovina.

Literature Quotes:
Cazacu E. Ion Antonescu’s regime during September 1940 – June 1941. Measures taken to regain the lost provinces in the summer of 1940 // Romanian Journal of History and International Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 103-124.
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


26.
full number
Number of views: 9      Download in PDF


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