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2 June 23, 2017


1.
2017.02.026. Šmigel Michal, Menkovskiy Vyacheslav I. Refugees From Eastern Europe in Czechoslovakia After the First World War // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2017. № XXVIII. Pp. 29-41. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/28_2017/5_Shmigel_Menkovskiy.pdf

Abstract:
As a result of complex internal politics situation in the Russian empire – the World War, the February Revolution and the fall of monarchy were spreading – hundred thousands of inhabitants decided to leave the country. “The Russian emigration of the whole stage” or “The White emigration” (1917-1922) during the Civil war years has changed into a mass issue. Part of the refugees were headed east – to Manchuria and China, however, most of them preferred Europe, USA etc. For most countries of western and central Europe struggling with economic problems and social impact of the WWI, refugees – emigrants from Russia have become a burden that complicated to find a solution to own social-political and economic issues. At the time when the emigration wave from Russia affected several countries to a big extent, young Czechoslovak republic offered a different approach. The Czechoslovak government adopted a specific stance on a relation to “Russian” refugees – it started a goal-directed regulation of their influx in a effort to concentrate the best cultural powers in the country. In Czechoslovakia, probably the best conditions for emigration were created in a short time and a state plan of a huge financial aid for refugees called “Russian helping action”(1921-1937) was approved. Thanks to important material aid from Czechoslovak government and a moral support of political and social structures of Czechoslovakia, tens of Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian institutions and organisations of culture-educational character were established in the country. Their purpose was to create spiritual and material values and secure spiritual and material needs of emigrants. Czechoslovak government viewed the “Russian” emigration as a factor of political and cultural life, taking traditional russophile moods of a big part of Czech and Slovak society and particular economic interests into consideration.

Keywords:
Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian refugees – emigrants, “White emigration”, Russian prisoners-of-war, repatriation, Czechoslovak “Russian Assistance Program”, Russian Empire, Czechoslovakia in the years 1920-1930.

Literature Quotes:
Šmigel Michal, Menkovskiy Vyacheslav I. Refugees From Eastern Europe in Czechoslovakia After the First World War // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2017. № XXVIII. Pp. 29-41.
Number of views: 33      Download in PDF


2.
2017.02.027. Gerasko Marina O. Architecture of Baturyn Government Buildings of XVII Century // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2017. № XXVIII. Pp. 42-55. Code http://shaj.sumdu.edu.ua/data/28_2017/6_Gerasko.pdf

Abstract:
The article examines the development of civil architecture in Ukraine-Hetmanate on the example of Baturyn architecture government buildings of the eighteenth century, featuers of its location and construction. At Hetmanate period there was extensive construction of buildings of different functional types, including civil or administrative buildings, which eventually played an increasing role compositional central city squares. In XVIII century there was marked by the fact that along with the construction of them local landmarks – churches and bell towers, massively built office buildings, city councils, town halls, shelves and Centesimal Office of the Courts. Of that time massive urban development was mainly manor, wooden, one-story, with a predominance popular types of housing. The best examples of wooden construction were in those places where rampant carpentry and had their masters. As Ukrainian wooden building played an important role style, there were two: classic andi llusional. Urban wooden building arose under the influence of social and economic relations, so the building was different from agriculture. General location plan and external forms of urban homes had the most features masonry construction of the Renaissance. In Ukraine in XVII-XIX centuries. widely used construction method foursquare log cabins – cage. Researchers note that in Baturyn the largest and most interesting for its construction was the Provincial Courthouse. It was a wooden structure with projecting chambers. The plan is asymmetrical, the longitudinal axis of the composition of which were office, porch, porch, whereby left side was shorter. The paper also considered wardroom (Cossack) at Baturyn civil court, which was called “Particular Structure” and had 3 rooms and porch. This room was with a thatched roof. It was 4 doors, windows 8 and was added with some small pantry door. Certainly interesting for researchers is building of Baturyn centesimal office. Scientists believe that it was similar to Chernihiv centesimal office and belonged to the category of buildings, which were divided into five chambers: porch, hallway, office, and prysudstvenna prison. But Baturyn prison facilities were separate, and in the office, which was to be a prison – was a place reserved for the archive. In terms of building Baturyn centesimal office – square, divided into three parts: in the center of the hall, the left and right wing cross fingering is divided in two partitions each. It was heated by twostoves that were probably covered with tiles, like the vast majority of contemporary stoves in gross and government buildings. This study established the administrative structures described heating and interior, studied business and special auxiliary buildings, analyzes building materials used to construct adminustanov and outlines the prospects for further study of the problem.

Keywords:
Baturyn, architecture, government buildings, district court, squadron office, building materials.

Literature Quotes:
Gerasko Marina O. Architecture of Baturyn Government Buildings of XVII Century // Sumy Historical and Archival Journal. 2017. № XXVIII. Pp. 42-55.
Number of views: 32      Download in PDF


3.
2017.02.028. Pavel A. Byshkov, Liudmila Y. Novitskaya, Svetlana F. Artemova. The Evolution of Social Organization in Abkhazia and Samurzakano in 1810–1870 // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 445-450. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1496420611.pdf

Abstract:
The article describes the evolution of the social structure of Abkhazia and Samurzakano in 1810– 1870-ies. The author draw a parallel with a similar process in the territory of Georgia. It reveals the role of the supreme power in these areas for the development of the social structure of the region. The materials were documents of the state archive of the Krasnodar territory introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, the legislative acts of the Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. The study methods were the principles of objectivity, historicism, consistency and maximum possible neutrality of the relationship of the researcher to interpret and evaluate the factual material. The historicocomparative method is of great importance in the work, like others, it is not of a general nature, moreover, its application is substantially limited. Therefore, the comparison needs to be applied in complex two opposite forms. This comparison was conducted when comparing the same cycle on two neighboring areas, which are located under the authority of the ruler, and the second under the rule of the Russian administration. In conclusion, it is noted that the period of 1810–1870-ies became a period of economic stagnation for Abkhazia and Samurzakano. The reasons for this were not the some inherent weakness of the ruler of Abkhazia Mikhail Shervashidze, but his course on the traditional way of life. Mikhail Shervashidze simply didn't want to change anything in the structure of society. He was quite satisfied with the nobility, the gods, serfs and slaves, only in such a system of values the ruler was needed as the supreme authority. At the same time, for the development of capitalist relations, both in the city and in the countryside, a completely different tooling was required. This toolkit was effectively tested on another neighboring territory, on the territory of Georgia.

Keywords:
social structure, Abkhazia, Samurzakan, Georgia, Russia, 1810–1870s.

Literature Quotes:
Pavel A. Byshkov, Liudmila Y. Novitskaya, Svetlana F. Artemova. The Evolution of Social Organization in Abkhazia and Samurzakano in 1810–1870 // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 445-450.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


4.
2017.02.029. Natalya A. Diesperova, Teimur E. Zulfugarzade, Ivan A. Kucherkov. The Features of Raiding Tactics of Circassians in the period of the Caucasian War (1801–1864) // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 438-444. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1496420569.pdf

Abstract:
The article on the basis of historiographical and archival material is reviewed the raiding tactics of the circassians in the period of the Caucasian war. The article is paid attention to all main components of the raiding operation, namely: the preparation for the invasion, exploration, raid and return process of squad involved in the raiding. As sources there were attracted the documents from russian and foreign archives, namely the central state historical archive of Georgia and the state archive of the Krasnodar region. The study methods were the principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, integrated consideration of socio-subjective in the subject of study and the maximum possible neutrality of the relationship of the researcher to interpret and evaluate factual material. The principle of historicism allows the authors to see the important phenomena and processes associated with raiding tactics of the сircassians during the Caucasian War on the basis of diverse facts obtained in the course of practical work with archival documents. In conclusion, the authors note that the conducting of the raid required the considerable efforts. The important attention was paid to the selection of personnel, intelligence service, the synchronicity of actions, military cunning, and also trick riding (“dzhigitovke”). The success of the raid was rapidity, so the operation was carried out only for one day. However, despite this readiness, the raid on the russian territory was not always a win-win deal, and sometimes led to the complete destruction of the raiding group.

Keywords:
Caucasian war, raid, cordon, mountaineers, Circassians, Cossacks.

Literature Quotes:
Natalya A. Diesperova, Teimur E. Zulfugarzade, Ivan A. Kucherkov. The Features of Raiding Tactics of Circassians in the period of the Caucasian War (1801–1864) // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 438-444.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


5.
2017.02.030. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Svechnikova. The Sanitary-epidemiological State of the Russian Troops in the Caucasus in 1797–1801 // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 428-437. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1496420532.pdf

Abstract:
The article deals with the sanitary-epidemiological state of the russian troops in the Caucasus in the period of 1797–1801. The attention is paid to the problems of russian troops on Georgian territory in the initial period of their stay. There are analyzed the causes of high mortality. The documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia) were the important source for the preparation of this article. Furthermore, there were used the scientific publications on the topic of the study, published in pre-revolutionary and modern periods. In the solution of research tasks there were applied the traditional scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization. There was actively used the historical-comparative method for identification and detailed characteristics of general and special in obtained materials by means of random sampling. In particular, this method was applied to compare the conditions of stay of russian troops in the internal regions of Russia and in the Caucasus. The principles of historicism and integrity focused authors on the search for reasons and conditions that determined the content, reliability, tonality and other properties of documents. The principles of historicism and integrity oriented authors to find the reasons and conditions that determined the content, accuracy, tone, and other properties of documents. The authors conclude that the reasons for the high mortality of russian troops on the territory of Georgia were not only regional climatic features, but also a whole range of household factors.

Keywords:
Caucasus, russian troops, sanitation, Georgia, climate, everyday problems.

Literature Quotes:
Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Svechnikova. The Sanitary-epidemiological State of the Russian Troops in the Caucasus in 1797–1801 // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 428-437.
Number of views: 31      Download in PDF


6.
2017.02.031. Bella A. Bulgarova, Alla G. Vazerova, Osor R. Ochirov. Religious Culture in the Caucasus: Pagan Temples and Traditions // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 420-427. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1496420284.pdf

Abstract:
The article considers the pagan temples in the Caucasus and the activities of the christian-pagan clergy in the XIX century. The attention is paid to the characteristic features of the rites of the christian-pagan clergy and the places of rituals in the North-West and Central Caucasus. The main sources were the materials of personal origin (memoirs and diaries) left by travelers in the nineteenth century. These materials allowed authors to get an idea about the appearance of temples and the rituals that were performed around them. In addition, there were used the materials of archaeological research and recent scientific publications. The archival materials presented by the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia are also of great importance. In the solution of research tasks there were used as general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization), and traditional methods of historical analysis. The authors used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the studied era in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. In view of the scarce information on the studied problem, the historical-descriptive method was also used. In conclusion, the authors state that pagan culture in the first half of the XIX century had a significant spread in the Caucasus. It is very often observed the religious symbiosis, when some pagan customs were closely intertwined with either christianity or islam. This religious symbiosis even today is manifested in a series of traditions of the caucasian population.

Keywords:
Kudepstinsky sacrificial stone, studies, Caucasus, Khuytsauy dzuar, paganism.

Literature Quotes:
Bella A. Bulgarova, Alla G. Vazerova, Osor R. Ochirov. Religious Culture in the Caucasus: Pagan Temples and Traditions // Bylye Gody. 2017. Vol. 44. Is. 2. Pp. 420-427.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


7.
2017.02.032. Kononchuk I.Ya., Fil Yu.V. The Slavic World in A.V. Suvorov’s Letters // Rusin, 2017. № 2 (48). Pp. 214-231. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/en/&journal_page=archive&id=1612&article_id=36473

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the depiction of the Slavic world of the second half of 18th century in the letters by Russian general A.V. Suvorov. Suvorov achieved a high status in Russian history due to his military deeds and activities, in particular his participation in the military campaigns in Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Kuban and Crimea, including the riot suppression in Poland and convoying Pugachev. He was also famous for remar-kable knowledge of mathematics, philosophy, history, German, French, Italian, Polish and Turkish. As Suvorov was a thoughtful witness (and direct participant) of many events in the history of Slavic states, the authors assumed that Suvorov’s letters might contain both Slavic culture-specific elements and his introspection on them, which can enhance our knowledge about the Slavic world in the 18th century. The analysis of Suvorov’s letters has shown that the Slavic world is represented in them by means of: 1) address to the topics of military campaigns and military service in general, Suvorov’s communi-cation with people of different Slavic nationalities; 2) active use of Slavic geographi-cal realities (cities, villages, rivers as well as local topography and weather) and their description; 3) appeal to Russian, Polish and other Slavic addressees; 4) indications of the numerous Slavic personalities (both individuals and nations), their comparison and evaluation in personal, social and universal (rarely national) contexts. Suvorov’s episto-lary also reflects the influence of Polish on the Russian language, which is manifested in the use of borrowed Polish units.

Keywords:
linguistic person, А.V. Suvorov, Suvorov’s epistolary, Slavic realities, bor-rowings from the Slavic languages.

Literature Quotes:
Kononchuk I.Ya., Fil Yu.V. The Slavic World in A.V. Suvorov’s Letters // Rusin, 2017. № 2 (48). Pp. 214-231.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


8.
2017.02.033. Covalenco S.I. Cultural and Chronological Position of the Final Mesolithic Sites between the Prut and Dniester Rivers // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 1. Pp. 155-172. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_Twte_aDTxyEeedWxD.aspx

Abstract:
The complex processes of cultural and historical development that took place at the end of the Mesolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic to the east of the Prut River are reflected in the character of materials from the sites of Sărăteni, Bilichenii Vechi 12, Sacarovca 4 and Chişcăreni 5. While their stone inventories are still typical of the Late Mesolithic, some other finds coupled with the available radiocarbon dates give grounds to think that the inhabitants of these sites co-existed and probably interacted with the Criş culture people, who were the first Early Neolithic settlers in the region.

Keywords:
Moldova, Prut-Dniester interfluve, Final Mesolithic, protoneolithic, Grebeniki-Kukrek unity, radiocarbon dating, Sarateni, Bilichenii Vechi 12, Sacarovca 4, Chişcăreni 5.

Literature Quotes:
Covalenco S.I. Cultural and Chronological Position of the Final Mesolithic Sites between the Prut and Dniester Rivers // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 1. Pp. 155-172.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


9.
2017.02.034. Kolesnik A.V. Settlement Systems and Raw Material Acquisition Strategies in the Upper Paleolithic of Donbas // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 1. Pp. 245-253. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_NjgY_0OMjSonFaP42.aspx

Abstract:
During the Upper Palaeolithic the climate of the south of the Russian Plain was extremely harsh, especially at the end of the glacial period. The landscape was dominated by dry periglacial steppes with islands of woods confined to river valleys (flood plains) and ravines. The climatic conditions promoted the development of diverse settlement strategies, combining elements of residential and logistic types of mobility. The raw material factor played an important role in the system. Sources of flint are unevenly distributed within Donbas. They are mainly concentrated in the southern and northwestern parts of the region. The Upper Palaeolithic campsites are widespread both within and beyond the flint-bearing areas. Two types of raw material acquisition strategies were of particular importance for the Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of the region: direct transportation and multi-stage exchange.

Keywords:
Donbas, Upper Palaeolithic, settler and raw material acquisition strategies, sites-workshops, flint manufacture, exchange.

Literature Quotes:
Kolesnik A.V. Settlement Systems and Raw Material Acquisition Strategies in the Upper Paleolithic of Donbas // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 1. Pp. 245-253.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


10.
2017.02.035. Aleksandrova O.I., Leonova E.V. Reconstruction of Hunting Projectiles from the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Cultures of the North Caucasus (based on the materials of Dvoinaya Cave) // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 1. Pp. 255-270. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_4jER_A22CQ0vODYeB.aspx

Abstract:
Recent excavations in Dvoinaya cave have led to the discovery of three cultural layers dating from the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic. The typological and traceological analyses of stone tools enabled the authors to identify functions of numerous points and geometric microliths, which appear to have been used as hunting projectiles (arrowheads and insets). Each cultural layer is thought to represent a distinct cultural tradition. The earliest (Late Upper Palaeolithic) layer is characterized by composite arrowheads with lateral insets and pointed tips. The Early Mesolithic assemblage is dominated by oblique point arrowheads in the form of segments. In the Late Mesolithic the former two types still continue to exist, but are supplemented with transverse arrowheads in the form of trapezes.

Keywords:
North Caucasus, Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Dvoinaya Cave, stone tools, hunting projectiles, typology, usewear analysis.

Literature Quotes:
Aleksandrova O.I., Leonova E.V. Reconstruction of Hunting Projectiles from the Late Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Cultures of the North Caucasus (based on the materials of Dvoinaya Cave) // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 1. Pp. 255-270.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


11.
2017.02.036. Kadrow S., Rauba-Bukowska A., Ţerna S.V. Technological and Mineralogical Analysis of LPC Pottery from Moldova // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 2. Pp. 257-274. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_aItf_T3F8i2ZBkpuI.aspx

Abstract:
The article presents the results of technological and mineralogical analysis of pottery samples from three LPC culture sites, investigated recently in the Republic of Moldova. Thin sections from six fine and coarse pottery fragments have been investigated with a polarized light microscope. Quantitative petrographic analysis has been used to determine the percentage of individual components. The research also involved schematic petrographic description of individual thin sections while the approximate temperature of firing was estimated by observing the thermally induced changes in the clay matrix. The results show that there is a strong affinity of LPC pottery from Moldova with the one from Lesser Poland, while there is considerable difference from the ceramics of Neolithic groups from North-Western Romania. Our analysis therefore proves the widely accepted thesis that eastern Romania, Moldova and the adjacent parts of Ukraine (the Dniester basin) were settled by the LPC population from Lesser Poland at the beginning of phase II (music note) of LPC development.

Keywords:
Prut-Dniester interfluve, Neolithic, Linear Pottery culture, technology, mineralogical analysis, cultural connections, distribution.

Literature Quotes:
Kadrow S., Rauba-Bukowska A., Ţerna S.V. Technological and Mineralogical Analysis of LPC Pottery from Moldova // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 2. Pp. 257-274.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


12.
2017.02.037. Ţerna S.V., Rassmann K., Rud V.S. A Pottery Firing Kiln from the Copper Age Settlement Stolniceni I (Edineţ District, Republic of Moldova) and the Production of Pottery to the East from the Carpathians in IV Millennium BC // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 2. Pp. 301-330. Code https://www.e-anthropology.com/English/Catalog/Archaeology/STM_DWL_MI76_q3OHduXjZYGp.aspx

Abstract:
The article publishes the find of a pottery burning complex investigated on the Cucuteni-Tripolye large settlement of Stolniceni I. The complex was composed of a dual-chambered updraught pottery kiln and a corresponding pit. The combustion chamber consisted of two parallel channels which were covered by clay slabs placed under the vessel to be burnt. One of such slabs was found in situ in the southern channel of the combustion chamber. After the kiln was no more in operation, it was filled and covered with fragmentary archaeological material including production waste from another kiln, which is possibly located nearby. The 14C analysis allowed us to date the kiln back to the beginning of the fourth millennium BC. After presenting the find from Stolniceni, we make an account of the available data on distribution and construction of dual-chambered kilns on Tripolye B2/C1 and C2 stages. Also, we discuss the problems of estimation of consumption and production of pottery on large sites and some of the perspectives for further research.

Keywords:
Prut-Dniester region, Eneolithic, Copper Age, Cucuteni-Tripolye culture, pottery making, pottery production, large settlement, dual-cambered updraught kiln, production volume.

Literature Quotes:
Ţerna S.V., Rassmann K., Rud V.S. A Pottery Firing Kiln from the Copper Age Settlement Stolniceni I (Edineţ District, Republic of Moldova) and the Production of Pottery to the East from the Carpathians in IV Millennium BC // Stratum Plus. 2017. № 2. Pp. 301-330.
Number of views: 27      Download in PDF


13.
2017.02.038. Mikhail Yu. Kiselev. Memoirs of Contemporaries about the Revolutionary Events in the South of Russia in 1917–1918 // Russkii Arkhiv. 2017. Vol. 5. Is. 2. Pp. 159-166. Code http://ejournal16.com/journals_n/1511957366.pdf

Abstract:
The article contains information on the work of the Questionnaire-Biographical Commission of the proletarian history section of the Institute of History of the Communist Academy of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (1929–1936), one of the structural subdivisions of which was the Section of the History of the Proletariat of the USSR. There was planed a preparation of a number of collections of autobiographies of participants of the October Revolution, the Civil War, the heroes of the labor front, and socialist construction. In order to obtain the biographical information of the workers, the Questionnaire-Biographical Commission organized memorial evenings, where participants told their biographies. Biographies contained both information of an autobiographical nature, and information about participation in the revolutionary movement, the first Russian revolution of 1905-1907, the revolutionary events of 1917, the Civil War and socialist construction. Evenings of memories were taken down and were called “Evenings of the memories of the Red Guards”. In the fund of the Institute of History of the Communist Academy of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, a transcript of a memorial evening of participants in revolutionary events in Rostov-on-Don and the region was preserved.

Keywords:
history, revolution of 1917, memoirs, Institute of History of the Communist Academy, Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Literature Quotes:
Mikhail Yu. Kiselev. Memoirs of Contemporaries about the Revolutionary Events in the South of Russia in 1917–1918 // Russkii Arkhiv. 2017. Vol. 5. Is. 2. Pp. 159-166.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


14.
2017.02.039. Galina Mikhaleva. Hermeneutic Analysis of the Media Text (Example: Soviet Cinema of Stalinism Times about University Students) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2017, Vol. 4, Is. 1. Pp. 25-37. Code http://ejournal18.com/journals_n/1502370513.pdf

Abstract:
The article presents the results of the hermeneutic analysis of the Soviet film of Stalinism times about university students “Law of Life” (1940) as an example. It compares the media text to the cultural and historic tradition and reality of the Stalinist political regime. The research problem was to analyze and characterize the cultural and historical peculiarities, define the role and value of the university topic in the mirror of the Stalinist Soviet cinema in terms of culture studies, film studies, anthropology, gender studies and media education. The author of the article concludes that the Soviet cinematography of Stalinism based on the communist ideology: 1) continued to elaborate the idea of bringing up the younger generation as fighters with Communist Party enemies; this tendency began in the Soviet cinematography in the 1920-1930s, shifted the emphasis on fighting the enemies of the Soviet state from fighting the “outer” enemies onto the “inner” threats and enemies, in particular, moral and ideological enemies of the party, youth and the whole society, unlike the Soviet silent cinema period; 2) functioned as an ideological propaganda tool of the state policy for developing communist views and beliefs among young audiences; 3) paid special attention to moral and ideological development of youth in accordance with the communist moral values without describing the academic and working aspects of university students’ life; 4) kept on using stereotyped role and gender character profiles thus failing to create realistic representation and narrative depth.

Keywords:
hermeneutic analysis, media text, film, characters, media literacy, media education, socialist realism, Stalinism, Soviet cinematography, university, students.

Literature Quotes:
Galina Mikhaleva. Hermeneutic Analysis of the Media Text (Example: Soviet Cinema of Stalinism Times about University Students) // Zhurnal ministerstva narodnogo prosveshcheniya. 2017, Vol. 4, Is. 1. Pp. 25-37.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


15.
2017.02.040. Roin Metreveli, Zurab Papaskiri. Historical Russian Studies in Georgia // East European History. 2017, Vol. 3, Is. 1. Pp. 7-16. Code http://ejournal49.com/journals_n/1516799666.pdf

Abstract:
Throughout nearly two centuries Georgia was a part of the Russian state universe. Despite it, the research of the actual problems of Russian history in general was never the priority in the Georgian historiography. Georgian historians presented several theses related to the specific Russian topics, but their achievements in the field of the Russian history are modest. Moreover, no influental school of scholars — specialists in Russian studies were ever created in Georgia. Nevertheless the Georgian historians found their niche — they were engaged in exploring of the Georgian-Russian relations and, having created significant scientific heritage in this area, enriched considerably the knowledge not only specifically in this field, but also regarding the Russian foreign policy in Caucasia in general.

Keywords:
historical russian studies, Georgia.

Literature Quotes:
Roin Metreveli, Zurab Papaskiri. Historical Russian Studies in Georgia // East European History. 2017, Vol. 3, Is. 1. Pp. 7-16.
Number of views: 27      Download in PDF


16.
2017.02.041. Michal Smigel. Specificities of Soviet Repatriation in Slovakia in 1944–1952 // East European History. 2017, Vol. 3, Is. 1. Pp. 23-38. Code http://ejournal49.com/journals_n/1514201283.pdf

Abstract:
The paper provides insights into the practical implementation of the Soviet repatriation operation in Slovakia between 1944 and 1952. It reveals mechanisms employed to carry out the repatriation, the degree of coercion, the role of the Slovak party and its security agencies. The paper offers a general analysis of the methods and fields of action that the bodies involved in the repatriation of Soviet citizens worked in. Materials used include documents of central, military and several regional archives in Slovakia. Additionally, it makes use of modern foreign and Russian scientific publications on the research topic. To address research goals, the work applies general scientific and traditional methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction and the historical ad comparative method. Particular importance in the paper is attached to the methods of concretization and generalization, which allowed us to extend the general framework of the Soviet repatriation operation in 1944-1952 using the example of one country – Slovakia with the focus on the operation's practical implementation. In conclusion, the authors point out that the Soviet authorities performed arbitrary actions, first of all, in the march of the front when actual Soviet citizens and people of “Soviet origin” from Slovakia (including opponents of the Soviet system and communist ideology) were forcibly taken away. As the war ended, the situation in the country normalized and the Soviet troops withdrew from Czechoslovakia, repatriation was already conducted in the interpretation of the Slovak security agencies and army authorities (often with numerous violations in a gross and hostile manner). It was aimed to clear the territory of Russian emigrants and all sorts of wartime refugees from the USSR (in a broader sense, all foreigners who did not have a residence permit) and it was brought about by the country's subordinate and lackey relations with the USSR and the influence of the left forces in society that generally accepted a concept of an ethnically pure national state of Czechs and Slovaks, which had no minorities and various foreign elements.

Keywords:
repatriation, displaced persons, re-emigration, Soviet repatriation operation, Soviet emigrants, refugees from the USSR.

Literature Quotes:
Michal Smigel. Specificities of Soviet Repatriation in Slovakia in 1944–1952 // East European History. 2017, Vol. 3, Is. 1. Pp. 23-38.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


17.
2017.02.042. Asia V. Kulakova. The Image of Byzantium in the Novel In Front of the Mirror by Veniamin Kaverin // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2017. Vol. 6. N 1. Pp. 485-497. Code http://slovene.ru/2017_1_Kulakova.pdf

Abstract:
Veniamin Kaverin’s novel In Front of the Mirror, which was published in 1972, is based on the actual correspondence between the Soviet mathematician Pavel Bez so nov and the painter Lidia Nikanorova, which Bezsonov handed over to the writer. It is clear even from a superficial comparison that there is a large discrepancy between the source material and the text of the novel; moreover, it is evident upon a closer view that descriptive and ideological features that are connec ted with Christianity and Byzantium in the novel are close to the ideas and ima gery that were typical for Kaverin’s contemporaries. From the perspective of the comparison between the text of the correspondence and the novel’s text, this pa per attempts to show that the image of Byzantium in the novel is not similar to its image in the correspondence. Through an analysis of metaphors, images, and ideas connected with Byzantium in these texts, I intend to show that the image of Byzantium in the novel In Front of the Mirror is not only determined by the pub lic sentiment of this period, specifically, by the second wave of the Soviet intel ligentsia’s conversion to Christianity, but that it is also extremely personal and based on autobiographical experience.

Keywords:
image of Byzantium, prototype, Soviet Russian literature, history of ideas, Russian emigration, the conversion to Christianity.

Literature Quotes:
Asia V. Kulakova. The Image of Byzantium in the Novel In Front of the Mirror by Veniamin Kaverin // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2017. Vol. 6. N 1. Pp. 485-497.
Number of views: 30      Download in PDF


18.
2017.02.043. Maria V. Korogodina. An Unknown Slavic Translation of a Fragment of the “Letter of the Three Oriental Patriarchs to Emperor Theophilos” in the 15th-century Miscellany by a Russian Scribe // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2017. Vol. 6. N 1. Pp. 307-332. Code http://slovene.ru/2017_1_Korogodina.pdf

Abstract:
There is a fragment of a Slavic translation of the “Letter of the Three Oriental Patriarchs to Emperor Theophilos” in a 15th-century Russian manuscript. The fragment contains the opening part of the “Letter” and considers the relations between state and church authorities. Comparison with the translation of the entire “Letter,” which is known as “Mnogoslozhnyi svitok,” proves that these translations are different. A comparison with the Greek text of the “Letter” allows us to identify the Greek manuscript closest to the Russian fragment. One can suggest that the manuscript belongs to a Russian scribe who was interested in texts related to the formation of the structure of state authority in Russia.

Keywords:
translation from Greek into Church Slavonic, Slavic manuscripts, Old Russian literature, paleography, “Letter of the Three Oriental Patriarchs to Emperor Theophilos”.

Literature Quotes:
Maria V. Korogodina. An Unknown Slavic Translation of a Fragment of the “Letter of the Three Oriental Patriarchs to Emperor Theophilos” in the 15th-century Miscellany by a Russian Scribe // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2017. Vol. 6. N 1. Pp. 307-332.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


19.
2017.02.044. Maria O. Novak. On the Phenomenology and Typology of Errors in Old Russian Apostolos Manuscripts from the 12th–14th Centuries // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2017. Vol. 6. N 1. Pp. 290-306. Code http://slovene.ru/2017_1_Novak.pdf

Abstract:
The article analyzes errors in two Old-Russian Apostolos manuscripts: Apostolus Christinopolitanus from the 12th century (an example of the commented type) and Tolstovskiy Apostolus from the 14th century (an example of the continuous type). The result of this research is new information about the reception of loan words, text reinterpretation, the influence of antigraphs and comments, and the personality of the Tolstovskiy scribe. The author corrects errors on both lexical and grammatical levels. Some of the lexical errors are provoked by deformations in the Greek text (homonym and paronym mixing). There are also various transformations of appellatives to onyms, and vice versa. All of this might occur in the antigraph as well as in the Tolstovskiy manuscript. Grammatical errors are fixed on the macroand microlevels. There are cases of incorrect text segmentation within syntagms and between paragraphs in the Tolstovskiy manuscript which take place owing to the influence of the Praxapostolos and the commented type of Apostolos. Both manuscripts are also influenced by comments. This is reflected in grammatical and semantic alteration of the main text and, more rarely, in direct comments included in the main text, although the latter is not supposed for the continuous type to which the Tolstovskiy manuscript belongs. As for the chirographer of the Tolstovskiy manuscript, his background could not be characterized by a high level of literacy or by rich knowledge of the New Testament. He obviously did not have any Greek copies or more correct Slavonic copies at his disposal.

Keywords:
Apostolarium, Old Russian manuscripts, errors, vocabulary, grammar, text type, comments.

Literature Quotes:
Maria O. Novak. On the Phenomenology and Typology of Errors in Old Russian Apostolos Manuscripts from the 12th–14th Centuries // Slověne. International Journal of Slavic Studies, 2017. Vol. 6. N 1. Pp. 290-306.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


20.
2017.02.045. Popa C.I. Artefacts From The Archaeological Repository And Their Interpretations In The Office: The Case Of A Prehistoric Copper Ornament From Boholt // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2017. 9. Pp. 21-41. Code https://www.cclbsebes.ro/docs/Sebus_9_2017/02_C_I_Popa.pdf

Abstract:
The present discussion is focused on a copper ornament discovered in the Coţofeni settlement from Boholt-“Ciuta.” Until now, it has erroneously been considered to be a necklace, but a direct analysis of the artefact has shown that it is, in fact, a bracelet with rolled ends. The issue with the terminology used in the case of such items has been discussed at length, as were the reasons why the ornament from Boholt is not a necklace but a bracelet ring, as were the very rare analogies for this type of item from a previous period (Cucuteni culture, “the pill-shaped handle” horizon).

Keywords:
bracelet, necklace, Coţofeni culture, Eneolithic.

Literature Quotes:
Popa C.I. Artefacts From The Archaeological Repository And Their Interpretations In The Office: The Case Of A Prehistoric Copper Ornament From Boholt // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2017. 9. Pp. 21-41.
Number of views: 30      Download in PDF


21.
2017.02.046. Popa-Gorjanu C. An Episode in the Diplomatic Relationship between Byzantines and Ottonians: The Marriage of Princess Theophano and Otto II // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2017. 9. Pp. 140-151. Code https://www.cclbsebes.ro/docs/Sebus_9_2017/09_CorneliaPG.pdf

Abstract:
This article aims to analyse the context, interests and actors involved in the marriage of Byzantine Princess Theophano and Emperor Otto II in 972 CE. Empress Theophano has earned a special status in western perception. The marriage of Princess Theophano to Emperor Otto II has drawn the attention of historians, primarily due to the interesting diplomatic and political implications and the role she played in this diplomatic affair, as well as her status at the Imperial Court as wife and Empress and, not least, as mother and Regent of Otto III.

Keywords:
Byzantine diplomacy, Theophano, Otto I, Otto II, Nikephoros II Phokas.

Literature Quotes:
Popa-Gorjanu C. An Episode in the Diplomatic Relationship between Byzantines and Ottonians: The Marriage of Princess Theophano and Otto II // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2017. 9. Pp. 140-151.
Number of views: 29      Download in PDF


22.
2017.02.047. Rotar M. Historical Aspects of Secular Oath in Romania // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2017. 9. Pp. 317-335. Code https://www.cclbsebes.ro/docs/Sebus_9_2017/16_M_Rotar.pdf

Abstract:
The emergence of the Secular Oath in the nineteenth century was part of a larger process of secularization taking place in Western Europe. This research aims to identify when the secular oath was accepted into Romanian legislation. First discussions around the issue appeared in Romania only at the beginning of the twentieth century, but these did not turn into debates. The aligning of Romanian legislation with the trends of the time on the one hand, and the legal recognition of nonreligious Romanian citizens (within the census of 1930) on the other, made the secular oath possible in our country, through its adoption with the ‘Carol II’ Code of Criminal Procedure in 1936.

Keywords:
secularization, oath, free thinkers, atheism, European patterns.

Literature Quotes:
Rotar M. Historical Aspects of Secular Oath in Romania // Terra Sebvs. Acta Mvsei Sabesiensis. 2017. 9. Pp. 317-335.
Number of views: 27      Download in PDF


23.
2017.02.048. Ciucălău D. Two Roman Dice from the Moldavian Plain// Journal of Ancient History and Archology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 2. Pp. 46-50. Code http:// http://www.jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/253

Abstract:
The article presents two Roman long dice discovered in the carpic settlements from Botosani-Dealul Cărămidăriei and Botosani-Groapa lui Ichim Their presence attests to the diversity of the relations between the free Dacians from the Plain of Moldavia and the Roman world of the 3rd century.

Keywords:
long dice, games of chance, rituals of divination, free Dacians

Literature Quotes:
Ciucălău D. Two Roman Dice from the Moldavian Plain// Journal of Ancient History and Archology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 46-50.
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF


24.
2017.02.049. Zăgreanu R. I., Cociș H., Gaiu C., Vaida D.L. , Bîcă I. The Roman Frontier in Bistrița – Năsăud County. Part I. The Repertory // Journal of Ancient History and Archology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 2. Pp. 25-45. Code http://www.jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/263/194

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to reopen the issues regarding the northern section of the frontiers of Dacia Porolissensis, most of the segment, located on the modern territory of Bistrița – Năsăud County. After almost 40 years, this study is returns to the questions about the watchtowers of the Roman frontier, their locations, their state of preservation and their functionality. The paper is largely an updated repertory of the military structures, with a series of observations regarding their role in the military system of Limes Romanus.

Keywords:
Roman frontier, northern frontier, Roman watchtowers, Bistrița – Năsăud County, Dacia Porolissensis.

Literature Quotes:
Zăgreanu R. I., Cociș H., Gaiu C., Vaida D.L. , Bîcă I. The Roman Frontier in Bistrița – Năsăud County. Part I. The Repertory // Journal of Ancient History and Archology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 25-45.
Number of views: 27      Download in PDF


25.
2017.02.050. Harun Oy. West Anatolian Mining in Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC)a // Journal of Ancient History and Archology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 2. Pp. 12-24. Code http://www.jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/view/219/188

Abstract:
The discovery of people’s mines and the use of them has been a major breakthrough in the development of civilization. In Anatolia, which has rich ore deposits, it is seen that people recognized the mines from the Neolithic Age. When the Early Bronze Age came, mining activities became very widespread. In western Anatolia, centers such as Troia, Limantepe and Beycesultan have become masters of metal production. In this article, in the Early Bronze Age, the mining of the western Anatolian region is evaluated. In this context, mineral deposits of the Western Anatolian region, mineral products and their usage areas, archaeological sites that found metal were investigated. In addition, the use of metals such as copper, tin, bronze, lead, gold, silver and iron in the region has been discussed.

Keywords:
West Anatolia, Early Bronze Age, Mining, Troia, Beycesultan.

Literature Quotes:
Harun Oy. West Anatolian Mining in Early Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC)a // Journal of Ancient History and Archology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 1. Pp. 12-24.
Number of views: 27      Download in PDF


26.
full number
Number of views: 31      Download in PDF


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