History and Archaeology in Countries of Black Sea Basin

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3 September 23, 2017


1.
2017.03.051. Vlasenko V.M. Ukrainian Emigration In The Countries Of South-Eastern Europe And The Ukrainian National Congress // Ancient Sumy Land. 2017. № L. Pp. 20-33. Code http://starovyna.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2-%D0%92%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%BE.pdf

Abstract:
After the failing Second Winter Campaign of the Ukrainian People’s Army in November 1921, Ukrainian emigration understood the illusoriness of its quick return to the homeland. The leaders of emigration attempted to define their further condition. The question about unification of all emigrations under a slogan of creation of the independent Ukraine has arisen. The leader of Ukrainian emigration in Romania, the Head of the Extraordinary diplomatic mission of UNR in this country Kostiantyn Matsiyevych was one of the first, who favored reorganization of the Government and the State Center of the Ukrainian People’s Republic. He proposed to the President of the Directory UNR Symon Petliura to shorten the Government’s structure, reorganize it in accordance with the new matters, and to create the All-Ukrainian National Center, which will include the representatives of different political movements and parties. First of all, this center should solve the general emigration questions, for example, of cultural and educational character, and after to cope with political tasks. K. Matsiyevych discussed openly the question about convocation of the All-Ukrainian Congress and election there the All-Ukrainian National Center. He reported on this topic at several conferences of the Ukrainian emigration in Romania, addressed to Ukrainian organizations in Berlin, Warsaw, Vienna, Kalisz, Lviv, Paris, Prague and other centers of the Ukrainian emigration calling to create the public interest groups; he proposed the statute’s project of the All-Ukrainian National Center. The question of the Center’s residence - Bucharest, Warsaw, Prague and Paris was discussed together with S. Petliura. The President of the Directory UNR was considering Paris as the best place of stay for the All-Ukrainian National Center. But after the kill of S. Petliura in May 1926, the process of unity of the Ukrainian emigration became a little bit slower. In late 1920th, the unities of emigrations have been created on site. In June 1929, in Prague, the followers of the Government of the UNR in emigration convened the First Conference of Ukrainian emigration that contained the Ukrainian emigrants from 7 countries, including Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Early 1930th, the idea of convening of the All-Ukrainian National Congress began to broaden among the emigrants and western Ukrainians again. In December 1934, the crossparty conference was held in Lviv. Four political parties of the Western Ukraine (Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance, Ukrainian SocialistRadical Party, Ukrainian Social Democratic Party, and Ukrainian National Revival) and three parties of Greater Ukraine (Ukrainian Radical Democratic Party, Ukrainian SocialistRevolutionary Party, and Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party) took part in the conference. The URDP was represented by its leader K. Matsiyevych. The conference approved the decision to convene the All-Ukrainian National Congress. The object and the task of the Congress were defined, as well as its structure body was determined. The Preparatory Congress Committee (PCC) was created and included two departments - Lviv and Foreign. K. Matsiyevych was the member of the Foreign department of PCC; he participated all its conferences, as well as published in “Newsletter of the Ukrainian National Congress.” As per May 1936, V. Filonovych was chosen to the structure body of the Foreign committee of PCC. Some countries have established interorganizational congressional committees, including Romania. Such representatives as V. Trepke (the Head), H. Vlasiuk, D. Herodot, A. Ivapshyna and H. Porokhivskyi were a part of the Congress. Despite the numerous events for support, the All-Ukrainian National Congress was never taken place. The ambitions of some political parties and organizations outweighed the feasibility of holding a nationwide forum. In May 1938, the Foreign department of the PCC announced about temporary stay of its activity.

Keywords:
Bulgaria, the AllUkrainian national Congress, the Ukrainian National Center, Kostiantyn Matsiyevych, Romania, the Ukrainian emigration, Yugoslavia.

Literature Quotes:
Vlasenko V.M. Ukrainian Emigration In The Countries Of South-Eastern Europe And The Ukrainian National Congress // Ancient Sumy Land. 2017. № L. Pp. 20-33.
Number of views: 348      Download in PDF


2.
2017.03.052. Kudinov D.V. The Evidence Of Ukrainian Parties Propagandaamong Peasants Of Kursk Governorate In 1905 (According To The Documents From State Archive Of The Kursk Region) // Ancient Sumy Land. 2017. № L. Pp. 46-56. Code http://starovyna.sumdu.edu.ua/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/4-%D0%9A%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2.pdf

Abstract:
The publication is based on three original documents from the case The Correspondence with District Police Officers, Assistant Chiefs of Kursk Governorate Gendarme Department, the Prosecutor of the District Court Concerning Brining to Responsibility People Accused of Distribution of Revolutionary Leaflets, Appeals and Tracts from the Fund of Kursk Gendarme Department of State Archive of the Kursk Region. The materials themselves indicate wider geography of Ukrainian parties agitation during the Russian Revolution of 1905 and prove that its eastern border line coincided with ethnographic boundary of Ukrainian nation, part of which passed through the territory of former Kursk Governorate (now within Kursk and Belgorod regions). Combining these materials with other archive documents and historiographic sources, the author comes to the conclusion that the most probable source of propaganda was Sumy district, where a group of The Revolutionary Ukrainian Party (RUP), headed by Anton Korotkevich, operated in 1905. The involvement of the RUP Okhtyrka group is also possible. It is also assumed that apart from the method of direct party agitation two other ways of propaganda materials distribution took place: firstly, through the agency of local groups of Russian parties, which made a union with Ukrainian national political organizations; secondly, ad-hoc, when Kursk peasants, who visited neighboring governorate, incidentally got hold of agitation literature. These two indicated means go for the distribution of the materials of the Ukrainian Social-Democratic Union (Spilka) and the Ukrainian Democratic Party, which didn’t have their own structures in the region and expanded their literature in Sumy district and nearby regions with the help of Russian organizations (The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, The Constitutional Democratic Party). The article provides a brief characteristic of agitation materials themselves together with an estimation of their relevance for peasants. Moreover, the list of populated localities where the police recorded the detection of Ukrainian parties proclamations is specified. The author expresses opinion that the quantity of populated locations was actually higher. Further explorations in Russian archives will allow to extend the idea about the scale of Ukrainian parties agitation, to define the names of agitators, their party or cell belonging and solve the question of whether Ukrainian propaganda resulted in organizational establishment of Ukrainian political organizations within Kursk Governorate.

Keywords:
agitation, propaganda, peasants, The Revolutionary Ukrainian Party, the Ukrainian Social-Democratic Union (Spilka), the Ukrainian Democratic Party

Literature Quotes:
Kudinov D.V. The Evidence Of Ukrainian Parties Propagandaamong Peasants Of Kursk Governorate In 1905 (According To The Documents From State Archive Of The Kursk Region) // Ancient Sumy Land. 2017. № L. Pp. 46-56.
Number of views: 351      Download in PDF


3.
2017.03.053. Evgeniy F. Krinko, Sergey J. Suschiy, Anvar M. Mamadaliev. Demographic Consequences of the Caucasian War: on the Issue of Battle Losses of the Highlanders // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 821-835. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1504272767.pdf

Abstract:
The Caucasian War resulted in particular negative demographic consequences. However, the dynamics of the population of the North Caucasus was influenced not only by military operations, but also by other factors. Military actions are not considered a demographic catastrophe for the highlanders; many of them retained their strength and military potential. Childhood supermortality remained the central factor of the increased demographic decline of the highlanders throughout the century. Significant changes in the size and composition of the region's population occurred after the war. They were caused by the resettlement of some highlanders into the Ottoman Empire and the settlement of these territories by representatives of other peoples. There is no reliable statistics on the population of the North Caucasus during the Caucasian War. The article is based on the data from various researchers on the losses of the population and the Russian army during the Caucasian War, as well as the materials of the First All-Russian Population Census, 1897.

Keywords:
Caucasian war, military losses, highlanders of the North Caucasus, demographic statistics, ethno-demographic processes, mahajirism.

Literature Quotes:
Evgeniy F. Krinko, Sergey J. Suschiy, Anvar M. Mamadaliev. Demographic Consequences of the Caucasian War: on the Issue of Battle Losses of the Highlanders // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 821-835.
Number of views: 335      Download in PDF


4.
2017.03.054. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Jasmin Gut. The Traditional Medicine in the Caucasus and the Activities of the Georgian Medical Board (1801–1804 years) // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 836-846. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1504272796.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the traditional medicine in Georgia and the activities of the Georgian Medical Board in 1801–1804. After the establishment of the russian presence in Georgia, the administration turned its attention to the health care system. In 1801–1804 there was carried out a range of measures for regulating the work of healers, as well as russian military doctors. The sources for the preparation of manuscript are the archive documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia). In addition, there were used the scientific publications on the topic of the study, published in pre-revolutionary and modern periods. In the solution of research tasks there are used the traditional scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, concretization, generalization. The specification of particular aspects, which at first glance may seem weakly significant, at times makes possible to model a holistic picture of events. For example, the reasons for the training of the first medical professionals among the Caucasian population were the poor understanding of caucasian languages by the russian doctors. The authors came to the conclusion that Georgia had its own folk medicine before the arrival of russians. This medicine was formed in the previous centuries, and despite of the presence among the healers the significant number of uneducated people, the men were treated and treated successfully in Georgia. It was much more complicated with the surgery, which in Georgia was practically absent. Under these circumstances there was established the Georgian Medical Board in 1801. There were started the activities on streamlining the work of traditional healers in the region. In addition, the government has drawn attention to the fact that russian doctors poorly understood the georgian language, and not quite effectively could help the sick, as a result there was sanctioned a set of training in the Moscow University for representatives of the local population.

Keywords:
Caucasus, Georgian Medical Board, traditional medicine, Georgia, healers, military doctors.

Literature Quotes:
Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Jasmin Gut. The Traditional Medicine in the Caucasus and the Activities of the Georgian Medical Board (1801–1804 years) // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 836-846.
Number of views: 322      Download in PDF


5.
2017.03.055. Branislav Šprocha, Pavol Tišliar. The Fertility of Women in Subcarpathian Russia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century and the First Half of the Twentieth Century // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 964-977. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1504273153.pdf

Abstract:
In the second half of the nineteenth century, most of the countries in western and northern Europe underwent a transformation in reproductive behaviour. The majority of countries in central and especially Eastern Europe experienced this trend later in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Additionally this transformation did not affect a whole country at once but was subject to social and spatial differentiation. One of the most interesting regions in which to study this phenomenon is Subcarpathian Russia, which was incorporated into Czechoslovakia after the First World War. It was the country’s least developed region in every way, with an exposed peripheral position without connection to the main development networks. At the other end of the country, Bohemia was one of the most developed areas in Europe and the demographic transformation began at around the same time as in other advanced countries. The present paper aims to make a detailed analysis of the reproductive behaviour of the population in Subcarpathian Russia from the second half of the nineteenth century to the mid-1930s. Research findings are used to define the main characteristics of the fertility schedule and its changes in the context of the rise and spread of the demographic transition in both cross-sectional and cohort perspectives. The intensity and character of reproductive behaviour in Subcarpathian Russia is also compared with the broader European context. For this purpose the authors have constructed Coale indices, indicators for the Coale-Trusell fertility model and cohort parity progression ratios.

Keywords:
Subcarpathian Russia, fertility, women.

Literature Quotes:
Branislav Šprocha, Pavol Tišliar. The Fertility of Women in Subcarpathian Russia in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century and the First Half of the Twentieth Century // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 964-977.
Number of views: 330      Download in PDF


6.
2017.03.056. Vladislav V. Dmitriev, Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy. The Southern Periphery of the Russian Empire and a Problem of Colonialism (on materials of National Policy of Russia in Relation to the Crimean Tatars at the end of XVIII – the beginning of the 20th century) // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 1010-1024. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1504273269.pdf

Abstract:
In the article the author tries to prove or disprove the opinion of some researchers that the Imperial government and the provincial administration pursued a colonial policy in relation to the Crimean Tatars since the end of 18th to the beginning of the 20th century which was aimed at their expulsion from the peninsula. To achieve this goal, the author analyzes the main directions of national policy of Russia towards one of the indigenous ethnic groups of the Crimea. The formation of the normative-legal base that allowed formalizing the rights and privileges of the Tatars is covered. The participation of Crimean Tatars in local government and self-government in which they had significant influence in the first decades after the annexation of Crimea to Russia is shown. The features of the military service of the Crimean Tatars in the Russian army are considered. The author has paid special attention to religious and educational policy of Russia in the Crimea. The causes of a phenomenon of dispossession of land of Tatars and attempt of permission of this problem are considered. The conclusion is drawn that the Russian Empire pursued in the Crimea not colonizer policy, but flexible policy of acculturation.

Keywords:
Russia, government, politics, Taurida governorate, colonialism, acculturation, Governor, the Crimean Tatars.

Literature Quotes:
Vladislav V. Dmitriev, Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy. The Southern Periphery of the Russian Empire and a Problem of Colonialism (on materials of National Policy of Russia in Relation to the Crimean Tatars at the end of XVIII – the beginning of the 20th century) // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 1010-1024.
Number of views: 334      Download in PDF


7.
2017.03.057. Goran Rajović, Dmitry O. Ezhevski, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic. Circassia in the Russian-Turkish Relations at the end of the XVIII – the beginning of the XIX centuries // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 803-810. Code http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1504274913.pdf

Abstract:
The article discusses the Circassia in the russian-turkish dialogue at the end of XVIII – early of XIX centuries. The article is paid attention to the little-known pages of relations between Russia and Turkey in maintaining stability on the territory of Circassia on the eve of the Caucasian war. In particular, this interaction is reflected in the responsibility of Turkey to Russia for robberies of the circassians on the russian side and in the attempts of the turkish authorities to prevent attacks of the circassians on the russian territory. There were used as materials the documents of the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar, Russian Federation). Also, there were involved the pre-revolutionary and modern researches reflecting the process of relations between Russia and Turkey on the circassian issues. The methodological basis of the article was the traditional for research of this kind the principles of historicism, objectivity, analytical and comparative methods. In conclusion, the authors noted that there was created an extensive dialogue on the circassian issues between Russia and Turkey in the late of XVIII – early of XIX centuries. So, there was clearly defined the property and financial responsibility for the theft of the circassians on the russian side, there was an exchange of prisoners and fugitives, generally there was supported a ban on the adoption of the representatives of the local people fled from the circassian territory. By the end of the XVIII century such tendencies that the turks could not convince the circassians to stop the attacks on the russian side became clearly evident. In the result, the russian administration began to resort to the rare implementation of repressive measures.

Keywords:
Circassia, russian-turkish agreements, the end of the XVIII – early of XIX centuries, the Black Sea cossacks.

Literature Quotes:
Goran Rajović, Dmitry O. Ezhevski, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic. Circassia in the Russian-Turkish Relations at the end of the XVIII – the beginning of the XIX centuries // Bylye Gody, 2017, Vol. 45, Is. 3. Pp. 803-810.
Number of views: 311      Download in PDF


8.
2017.03.058. Sergey A. Stepanenko. The Prams of the Southern Russian Military Fleet of the XVIII century (History of Creation and Military Usage of the «Floating Boxes») // International Naval Journal, 2017, 5(1). Pp. 4-48. Code http://ejournal37.com/journals_n/1508158977.pdf

Abstract:
This particular article examines in close details the history of the Russian military Prams of the Southern Flotillas (The Don flotillas and the Dnepr flotilla) in XVIII century. This paper contains some information such as constructions of these vessels, their service as a part of Flotillas and their role in the Russian-Turkish wars (1735 – 1739 and 1768 – 1774 years), and based on printed authentic sources. In the first part of the article the author focuses on the warfare of the Don flotilla during the second siege and finally the conquest of Azov in 1736; you will find the detailed description of the Pram's participation in fortress's bombardment and the following defense of the fortress against possible attacks of the Turkish Fleet. Also in the article an attention is paid to some information about Prams of the Dniepr (Bryansk) Flotilla which is still little-studied subject. The second part of this article contains description of construction of Prams of the Don Flotilla and their following participation in military defense of Azov town and delta of the River Don against possible Turkish hostile actions. Besides that, the article discusses briefly the questions about differences and features of strategic and tactical usage between Prams of the Baltic Fleet and Prams of the South Flotilla; and also criticized some stereotypes about the role of these kind of vessels in military navy history.

Keywords:
Pram, flotilla, Russian-Turkish war, the siege of Azov, the siege of the River Don and the Dnieper, Rear Admiral Bredahl, Vice Admiral Senyavin.

Literature Quotes:
Sergey A. Stepanenko. The Prams of the Southern Russian Military Fleet of the XVIII century (History of Creation and Military Usage of the «Floating Boxes») // International Naval Journal, 2017, 5(1). Pp. 4-48.
Number of views: 323      Download in PDF


9.
2017.03.059. Stumpf J. A. On the Mutilation and Blinding of Byzantine Emperors From the Reign of Heraclius I until the Fall of Constantinople // Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 3. Pp. 46-54. Code http://www.jaha.org.ro/index.php/JAHA/article/viewFile/265/210

Abstract:
Whoever reads about Byzantine history probably realises sooner or later that besides killing a pretender or emperor it was quite common to blind him – or to cut off his nose. This latter practice is called rhinotomy. It is the aim of this paper to examine the frequency of and the reasons for these forms of punishment in Byzantiumfrom the beginning of the 7th century until 1453. The article takes a diachronic approach to the questions regarding Byzantine emperors and pretenders who were blinded or mutilated. The multiple brief case studies provided in the first part thus make up the core of the paper. But the statistical analyses in the second half are nevertheless crucial for the conclusions drawn at the end.

Keywords:
Blinding in Byzantium, mutilation, regicide, rhinotomy, rhinokopia

Literature Quotes:
Stumpf J. A. On the Mutilation and Blinding of Byzantine Emperors From the Reign of Heraclius I until the Fall of Constantinople // Journal of Ancient History and Archaeology. 2017.Vol. 4. Is. 3. Pp. 46-54.
Number of views: 341      Download in PDF


10.
2017.03.060. Petersen A. “Under the Yoke”: The Archaeology of the Ottoman Period in Bulgaria // Journal of Islamic Archaeology. 2017. No 1. Vol 4. Pp. 23-48. Code https://journals.equinoxpub.com/index.php/JIA/article/view/30624

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to draw attention to the considerable potential for investigating the Ottoman archaeology of Bulgaria and also to consider what research has already been carried out. Because the modern state gained its independence from the Ottomans this period of history is generally regarded in negative terms. The physical evidence of the Ottoman era, in particular mosques and other Muslim religious buildings, were reminders of an alien past and many of them were destroyed or allowed to fall into ruin. Increasing archaeological activity in recent years combined with a more open approach to the Ottoman past have meant that there is now considerable potential for archaeological research of the Ottoman period.

Keywords:
Ottoman, Bulgaria, Balkans, Ottoman Architecture, Ottoman Archaeology, Islam in Europe.

Literature Quotes:
Petersen A. “Under the Yoke”: The Archaeology of the Ottoman Period in Bulgaria // Journal of Islamic Archaeology. 2017. No 1. Vol 4. Pp. 23-48.
Number of views: 343      Download in PDF


11.
2017.03.061. Garusova O.A. Refugees in Bessarabia During the Civil War (1918–1921). Crossing the Dniester // Rusin. 2017. №3 (49). Pp. 58-73. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1629&article_id=36451

Abstract:
The author examines a less studied way of the Russian emigration to Bessarabia during the Civil War. The attention is focused on the key moment of the “Bessarabian route” – crossing the Dniester, which has become a frontier river in the course of historical cataclysms. Using documents, fiction, memoirs and materials of Bessarabian periodicals, the author reveals the motives, circumstances and methods of crossing the border. The intensity and composition of the refugee flows was determined by the war actions in the south of Russia as well as by the policy of the Romanian Kingdom towards Russian refugees. Thus, the geographical frontier became a place of tragic events. In the minds of emigrants, the Dniester acquired some semantic and symbolic interpretations as of a frontier space. The category of space transformed into the category of historic time. The experience of refugees of that tragic epoch reveals a lot of problems that are topical even nowadays. Keywords: Civil War, emigration, Bessarabian refugees, crossing the Dniester.

Keywords:
West Anatolia, Early Bronze Age, Mining, Troia, Beycesultan.

Literature Quotes:
Garusova O.A. Refugees in Bessarabia During the Civil War (1918–1921). Crossing the Dniester // Rusin. 2017. №3 (49). Pp. 58-73.
Number of views: 334      Download in PDF


12.
2017.03.062. Beniuc V.A., Nazaria S.N. The Socio-Political Evolution of Bessarabia at the End Of 1917 and the Beginning of the Romanian Military Intervention // Rusin. 2017. №3 (49). Pp. 28-57. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1629&article_id=36450

Abstract:
The Russian revolution proclaimed the right of peoples to self-determination, and Moldovans had the opportunity to decide their own destiny. As in all Russia, Bessarabia launched the processes of socio-political and national self-determination, which were later interrupted by the Romanian military intervention. Keywords: Bessarabia, revolution, Sfatul Țării, Soviets, Bolsheviks, Romanian intervention.

Keywords:
West Anatolia, Early Bronze Age, Mining, Troia, Beycesultan.

Literature Quotes:
Beniuc V.A., Nazaria S.N. The Socio-Political Evolution of Bessarabia at the End Of 1917 and the Beginning of the Romanian Military Intervention // Rusin. 2017. №3 (49). Pp. 28-57.
Number of views: 342      Download in PDF


13.
2017.03.063. Sribnyak I. V. Ukrainians in Bessarabia and Romania in 1921–1923 (Everyday Life of the UPR Interned Soldiers inside and outside the Camp) // Rusin. 2017. №3 (49). Pp. 123-135. Code http://journals.tsu.ru/rusin/&journal_page=archive&id=1629&article_id=36455

Abstract:
The paper analyses the staying of the UPA interned soldiers in Romanian camps in 1921–1923 with the focus on their everyday life inside and outside the camps. It was found that the everyday life of Ukrainian interned soldiers was determined by military rules. However, the interned soldiers held cultural and educational events and organised self-regulated artistic groups with the help of Ukrainian diplomacy in 124 Romania. In 1922–1923, Romanian governmental authorities extensively involved interned soldiers in different types of work to curb camp maintenance costs. When camps were liquidated, the UPA military organisation in Bessarabia and Romania also came to its end. Nevertheless, the former internees kept in touch for long time and participated in different Ukrainian emigre organisations.

Keywords:
interned soldiers, UPR, camp, group, Bessarabia, Romania.

Literature Quotes:
Sribnyak I. V. Ukrainians in Bessarabia and Romania in 1921–1923 (Everyday Life of the UPR Interned Soldiers inside and outside the Camp) // Rusin. 2017. №3 (49). Pp. 123-135.
Number of views: 335      Download in PDF


14.
2017.03.064. Vlašić A. The Role of Forests of Slavonia and Syrmia in the Ottoman Szigetvár Campaign of 1566 with Particular Regard to Bridge-Building // Journal of the Institute of Croatian History. 2017. Vol. 49. № 1. Pp. 149-170. Code https://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=284516

Abstract:
Based on published and unpublished archival material and relevant literature, the paper deals with the role of forests of Slavonia and Syrmia in the Ottoman military logistics, i.e., in the organization and conduct of the 1566 Szigetvár military campaign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. On its way through Slavonia and Syrmia towards Szigetvár, the Ottoman army crossed the pontoon bridges across the rivers Sava, in Syrmia near Šabac, and Drava, in Slavonia near Osijek. For the purposes of acquiring firewood for the army, the construction of riverboats, cannon storage facilities and the aforementioned pontoon bridges, the Ottoman army leadership organized the extraction of timber from the forests of eastern Slavonia and Syrmia. A review of Ottoman sources on the military campaign indicates that the Slavonian and Syrmian forests had an extremely important role in the organization and conduct of the Szigetvár campaign. It is difficult to determine the amount of timber obtained by cutting Slavonian and Syrmian forests and then spent for military purposes. Although in some Ottoman data on the exploited timber one can find precise figures regarding the amount of wood, in most cases it is impossible to even remotely determine how big the need for timber was. After all, it can be assumed that the timber requirement noted in the surviving archival sources makes up only a part of the overall timber requirement. The Ottoman military campaign of 1566 strained the logistical strengths of local administration along its route, and emphasized the natural resources, in this case Slavonian and Syrmian forests, on which the Ottoman state could have relied while devising the plans for penetration into Central Europe. It is possible that without such abundant forest resources available to the Ottoman army, the Szigetvár campaign would have evolved very differently, and that without the rapid construction of the Drava bridge near Osijek, the campaign would have been directed towards some other fortress instead of Szigetvár. Perhaps in this case the history of Europe in the 16th century would have taken a significantly different turn.

Keywords:
Ottoman Empire, Slavonia, Syrmia, forests, Suleiman the Magnificent, Szigetvár campaign of 1566.

Literature Quotes:
Vlašić A. The Role of Forests of Slavonia and Syrmia in the Ottoman Szigetvár Campaign of 1566 with Particular Regard to Bridge-Building // Journal of the Institute of Croatian History. 2017. Vol. 49. № 1. Pp. 149-170.
Number of views: 331      Download in PDF


15.
2017.03.065. Jolivet-Lévy Catherine. Bezirana kilisesi (Cappadocia). Аn outstanding Palaeologan decoration in the lands of the Rum. New testimony on the ties between Byzantium and the sultanate // Zograf. 2017. Is. 41. Pp. 107-142. Code http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-1361/2017/0350-13611741107J.pdf

Abstract:
This article deals with a rock-cut church (Bezirana kilisesi), dedicated to the Theotokos, recently rediscovered in the Ihlara valley (Cappadocia). The paintings from the very end of the 13th century or the beginning of the 14th, of exceptional quality, indicate that the patron of the church, whose identity is unknown, was a high-ranking, wealthy and literate individual. They bear witness to the maintenance of close links with Byzantium in this region, as well as to the mobility of artists, and bring new testimony on the cultural diversity of Seljuk Anatolia.

Keywords:
Cappadocia, Palaeologan painting, Melismos, warrior saints, ornamental patterns, inscriptions, artistic interactions in Seljuk Anatolia.

Literature Quotes:
Jolivet-Lévy Catherine. Bezirana kilisesi (Cappadocia). Аn outstanding Palaeologan decoration in the lands of the Rum. New testimony on the ties between Byzantium and the sultanate // Zograf. 2017. Is. 41. Pp. 107-142.
Number of views: 342      Download in PDF


16.
2017.03.066. Maayan Fanar Emma. The Transfiguration at Shivta. Retracing early Byzantine iconography // Zograf. 2017. Is. 41. Pp. 1-18. Code http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0350-1361/2017/0350-13611741001M.pdf

Abstract:
The Transfiguration constitutes one of the most important events in the New Testament. Yet, only few pre-iconoclastic examples of the Transfiguration scene have survived: S. Apollinaire in Classe, Ravenna, St. Catherine Monastery, Sinai and Poreć in Istria, each has its unique iconography. Therefore, scholars have concluded that the Transfiguration scene became widespread only after the iconoclastic controversy. We aim to show, that Transfiguration scene in Shivta, an early Byzantine settlement in the Negev desert, allows a glimpse into the early Christian iconography of the well-known scene, providing a missing link to its development in the post-iconoclastic period.

Keywords:
Shivta, Transfiguration, Early Byzantine iconography, Negev.

Literature Quotes:
Maayan Fanar Emma. The Transfiguration at Shivta. Retracing early Byzantine iconography // Zograf. 2017. Is. 41. Pp. 1-18.
Number of views: 328      Download in PDF


17.
2017.03.067. Gülten S. Çungars: Mongol Remainders in Anatolia in the XVI. Century // History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 53-61. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//xvi-yuzyil-anadolusunda-mogol-bakiyeleri-cungarlar201711191d0db.pdf

Abstract:
Zungar, Jeungar, Caungar and Cengigar names which means left arm, left hand, left wing in Mongols gradually transformed into Chungar. Significant part of Chungars whom settled in Anatolia after the Kösedağ War were also known as Oyrats and Kalmuks. Those were secondary components besides the Turkmens tribes at Anatolia. Chungars were mainly living in CentralAnatolia as migrant-settlery tribes, some of them were taken back to their former homeland by Timur after Ankara Battle (1402). However, an important part of them managed to stayed in Anatolia according to the Tahrir Records. The communities under the name Chungar, Chunkar, Chonkar, Chonkara also Tatar and Kara Tatar living among Ulu Yörük, Bozok, Dulkadir, Yeni-il and Halep Turkmen tribes were remainders of Chungars. This study mainly focuses on Turkmens and Yoruks tribes which was dependent on these communities whom were Mongol remainders, the areas where they spread, their populations and their locations which was established with their own names according to Tahrir Registers.

Keywords:
Mongols, Chungars, Tatar, Ulu Yörük, Bozok, Dulkadir, Yeni-il.

Literature Quotes:
Gülten S. Çungars: Mongol Remainders in Anatolia in the XVI. Century // History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 53-61.
Number of views: 337      Download in PDF


18.
2017.03.068. Taşkesenlioğlu M. Y. Seal in Ottoman Diplomacy and Use of Fake Seal As A Case // History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 183-202. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//osmanli-diplomatiginde-muhur-ve-bir-vaka-olarak-sahte-muhur-kullanimi201711661e72e.pdf

Abstract:
In this work, seals in Ottoman Empire are studied as a diplomatic element. Seal, used in official documents from the earliest times of the empire, was used as a meta in forgery of documents by making imitations or producing counterfeits. Within this framework, profession of Hakkak, which is the art of engraving seals, and application books were studied in relation to the subject. Along with the historical process of the profession of Hakkak, its problems in 19th century were studied in terms of fake seal usage. Besides, application books kept in Ottoman Empire were analysed with regard to their contents. In addition, examples of forgery in documents and seals especially taken from incidents in 19th century were studied. In our study, which includes penal santions that the Ottoman Empire practised against forgery, two different cases of fake seal involving two prominent statesmen of Tanzimat Reform Era, Mehmet Emin Ali and Mehmet Ali Pasa were examined.

Keywords:
Diplomatics, Seal, Forgery

Literature Quotes:
Taşkesenlioğlu M. Y. Seal in Ottoman Diplomacy and Use of Fake Seal As A Case // History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 183-202.
Number of views: 347      Download in PDF


19.
2017.03.069. Salep M. An Example to the Extraordinary Process in Turkish Democracy History: Foundation of the First Nihat Erim Government // History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 139-156. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//turk-demokrasi-tarihinde-olagan-disi-surece-bir-ornek-birinci-nihat-erim-hukumetinin-kurulusu2017114120766.pdf

Abstract:
The success of the democratic states in the Second World War had affected Turkey and resulted in the formation of a second political party. Therefore, the multi-party system has started officially and practically in Turkey. In the 1950 elections, the Democrat Party (DP), which was established in 1946, has gained a huge success against Republican People’s Party (RPP) and came the power alone. The Democrat Party had stayed in power alone for 10 years and had been driven away from administration with a coup d’état dated 27 May 1960. After the 1961 elections, the coalition government years for Turkey had started and this situation had continued until the year of 1965. The Justice Party, which came to power alone in 1965 elections, stayed in power until 12 March 1971 Memorandum. After the 27th May coup, 12th March Memorandum is like a second strike to the Turkish democracy. Because Demirel Government, which came to power via elections, had to resign. Meanwhile, RPP Koceali Deputy Nihat Erim had been assigned as Prime Minister. Nihat Erim had formed a new government consisting of members mostly outside of the National Assembly including the party members. The Erim Government, which was formed to realize the foreseen reforms in 12th March Memorandum, had started its activities by receiving vote of confidence from the Turkish Grand National Assembly. This government formed under the shadow of the Memorandum was on the prowl of the practices that were seen compulsory. In this article, First Nihat Erim Government is evaluated during the process when the democracy reaches deadlock.

Keywords:
Nihat Erim, Democracy, 12th March Memorandum, Turkish Armed Forces, Turkish Grand National Assembly.

Literature Quotes:
Salep M. An Example to the Extraordinary Process in Turkish Democracy History: Foundation of the First Nihat Erim Government // History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 139-156.
Number of views: 334      Download in PDF


20.
2017.03.070. Hanilçe M. The Troubles in the Installation of the Telegraph Line to the Ottoman Rural A Case Study of Niksar-Erbaa-Tokat Telegraph Line// History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 63-99. Code http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//osmanli-tasrasina-telgraf-hatti-cekilmesinde-yasanan-zorluklar-niksar-erbaa-tokat-telgraf-hatti-ornegi201711c49c7a1.pdf

Abstract:
In this study, the issue of installation a telegraphic line between Erbaa-Niksar and Tokat is discussed. The aim of the study is to reveal the desire of the second and third degree places which are out of the main lines of the Ottoman State by moving from the example of this telegraph line and reveal the experienced difficulties and challenging procedure in the process of line arrival. In 1880, when Tokat reached the liva status, it has become obligatory for the new liva center to be connected with a line that Erbaa district of Amasya liva’s, newly connected to Tokat and having no telegrams and Niksar district with telegraphic links to Canik via Ünye and from 1880 to 1896, Erbaa got to the line after a long correspondence and bureaucratic initiative. The main source of the work is archival documents related to the subject. In the study, it was occasionally applied to the annuals of the provinces of Trabzon and Sivas.

Keywords:
Erbaa, Niksar, Tokat, Telegraph, Secondary Lines.

Literature Quotes:
Hanilçe M. The Troubles in the Installation of the Telegraph Line to the Ottoman Rural A Case Study of Niksar-Erbaa-Tokat Telegraph Line// History Sudies. 2017.Vol. 9. Is. 4. Pp. 63-99.
Number of views: 326      Download in PDF


21.
2017.03.071. Kök A. TIEM 73 The First Turkish Interlinear Translation of The Qur'an in Turk Khaqanid Period: About The Scholarly Exploration and The Scholarly Publication // Journal of Modern Turkish Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is 3. Pp. 191-211. Code http://mtad.humanity.ankara.edu.tr/193-1432017-876.php

Abstract:
This article is about of the doctoral dissertation thesis written by Abdullah Kök and Suat Ünlü whose advisor was Prof. Dr. F. Sema Barutcu Özönder. TIEM 73 is the first and complete interlinear literal Turkish translation of the Qur’an. The Work’s lexis overlaps with two other Works of the era, namely Kutadgu Bilig Bilig and Dîvânu Lûgati't-Türk. TIEM 73 has a special place in the history of Turkish language. Being copied in Turk cultural center, Shiraz, with glittering page sides, may give us some information about its polical patronage which shows that it is ordered to be written. The fact that it is one of the earliest copies of the Quran increases the interest on this manuscript and attracts attention of Turkology circles.

Keywords:
TIEM 73, The First Interlinear Literal Turkish Translation of The Qur’an, Turk Khanate (Qarakhanid) Period, Shiraz.

Literature Quotes:
Kök A. TIEM 73 The First Turkish Interlinear Translation of The Qur'an in Turk Khaqanid Period: About The Scholarly Exploration and The Scholarly Publication // Journal of Modern Turkish Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is 3. Pp. 191-211.
Number of views: 359      Download in PDF


22.
2017.03.072. Özcan. H. An Ataturk Admirer and Albanian Youth Leader Ismet Toto’s Ideas on The Turkish Revolution and his Revolt // Journal of Modern Turkish Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is 3. Pp. 107-126. Code http://mtad.humanity.ankara.edu.tr/182-1422017-863.php

Abstract:
The Turkish Struggle of Independence under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, has been a great source of inspiration against imperialist nations and their supporters. In the sequel, reforms made by Turkish Republic thanks to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk sat an example for Muslim and backward Muslim and Non-Muslim countries under the European colonial rule. In this sense, Albania, former and one of the Ottoman imperial Balkan vilayet, is one of the countries that took model of Turkey to modernization itself. Muslim Albanians are considered to be the main element in the Ottoman Empire and sharing a common fate for almost five centuries has been an important factor for taking Turkey as a model. Turkey’s relation with Albania, after the collapse of Ottoman Empire and freed from Ottoman rule in the beginning of 20th century and interrupted by the late contemplation of Albania’s political alliance inside the country and president Zog’s declaration of the kingdom with the support of Italy on September 1, 1928. Diplomatic relations established after Atatürk’s sending telegraph to this Balkan sovereign to invite him to the II Balkan Conference which was held in İstanbul (20 October 1931), destroyed by the marriage of Albanian king’s single sister Saniye II and Abdülhamit II’s son Abid Efendi (January 1936). During this difficult period of time with ups and downs, İsmet Toto who became the leader of Albanian youth, accepted Turkey’s leader Gazi Mustafa Kemal as a source of inspiration and as a political and guide for nationalistic, modern, liberal and anti-monarchist ideas himself and for his country. He wrote a book, titled in Turkish on Ataturk and the meaning of Turkish Revolution, explained why the Albanian nation pursuit that Turkish way of modernization. The content of this book has been written in Albanian. The king’s governance, not only felt uncomfortable with the content of that political book and but also made İsmet Toto pay the price of his ideas and actions with his life.

Keywords:
Ismet Toto, Gazi Mustafa Kemal, King Zog, Turkey, Albania.

Literature Quotes:
Özcan. H. An Ataturk Admirer and Albanian Youth Leader Ismet Toto’s Ideas on The Turkish Revolution and his Revolt // Journal of Modern Turkish Studies. 2017. Vol. 4. Is 3. Pp. 107-126.
Number of views: 341      Download in PDF


23.
2017.03.073. Erdaş S. The First Year of Turkish-Soviet Relations and Two Regarding Decrees // Journal of Modern Turkish History. Vol. 13, Is. 26. Pp. 67-90. Code http://www.ctad.hacettepe.edu.tr/13_26/03.pdf

Abstract:
The Bolshevik Revolution, one of the most important events of the 20th century, has made significant contributions and impacts in the recent history of not only the Soviet geography, but also the neighbouring countries such as the Caucasus and Turkey, and has played an important role in shaping the region. The Turkish-Soviet relations, which is founded on hostilities and wars with a few exceptions, entered into a new era and a period of rapprochement began between the parties. The Bolshevik Russia regarded the National Struggle movement in Turkey as a struggle against Western colonial policy and deemed it appropriate for the own policies of Bolshevik Russia to help the Muslim World in its struggle for acquisition of liberties. However, the Ankara Government was too stunned by the stipulation by the Bolshevik administration on abandonment of a certain area of the eastern provinces to Armenians for the acceptance of the treaty terms set out during the negotiations conducted for a long time in a situation where the Treaty of Sevres was signed by the Istanbul Government and the Armenians were not yet included in the Soviet system. Thereupon, the Council of Ministers took two important decisions and made some determinations on the Bolsheviks' purposes and demands. These findings reveal the fact that the Soviet expansionism was first seen in Ankara and require them to be discussed in terms of their correctness and accuracy.

Keywords:
Turks, Soviets, Bolshevik, Decree, Armenian

Literature Quotes:
Erdaş S. The First Year of Turkish-Soviet Relations and Two Regarding Decrees // Journal of Modern Turkish History. Vol. 13, Is. 26. Pp. 67-90.
Number of views: 320      Download in PDF


24.
2017.03.074. Cengiz N. M. Şimşek A. Turkish Image in Russian HistoryTextbooks in the Soviet Union Period // Journal of Modern Turkish History. Vol. 13, Is. 26. Pp. 37-66. Code http://www.ctad.hacettepe.edu.tr/13_26/02.pdf

Abstract:
The nation-states established in the 20th century attach importance to the teaching of history in their schools. History lessons aimed to identify the socio-cultural aspects of the new generation and introduce the state they belong to as citizens. In this sense, the strategy of history education has a content that all states build their national identities. Non- nation state countries such as the Soviet Union have also been affected. In this study, textbooks prepared according to the education policy applied in the Soviet Union between 1917 and 1991 and shaped by the idea of "Communism" were selected. The approaches to Turkish and Ottoman images in these books have been examined. Focusing on the Turkish image of the history textbooks, the situation of the Turkish and Ottoman image changed accordingto the periods in history lessons in Russia during the period of the USSR. The view of the Soviet Union, which has millions of Muslims and Turkish populations in its sovereignty, towards the concept of Turks was found important. This work has been done to show the effects of political changes, ideologies on education and textbooks. Historye ducation in the Soviet Union was examined through history methodology, and the changes that occurred according to the periods were interpreted. Content analysis were used in the study. The pictures in the history textbooks are also included in the study to interpret them visually. At the end of the examination, the Soviet Union, which was trying to create the "Sovietnation" with the Bolshevik revolution, was found to be the "other" in terms of its view on historytext books. Although it was not a nation-state, it was noticed that the changes in the political arena affected the history textbooks of the USSR. At the end of the examination, it was determined that the "Turkish image" in the history textbooks differed according to the periods and political developments.

Keywords:
History education, USSR, History textbook, Turkish image, Ottoman image.

Literature Quotes:
Cengiz N. M. Şimşek A. Turkish Image in Russian HistoryTextbooks in the Soviet Union Period // Journal of Modern Turkish History. Vol. 13, Is. 26. Pp. 37-66.
Number of views: 323      Download in PDF


25.
2017.03.075. Dayar E. Akdeniz’, one of the First Local Newspapers in Antalya Province (1925-1926) // Journal of Modern Turkish History. Vol. 13, Is. 26. Pp. 181-207. Code http://www.ctad.hacettepe.edu.tr/13_26/07.pdf

Abstract:
The press life in Antalya started with the publication of the “Anatolia in Antalya” newspaper in Antalya on 19 December 1920. The “Anatolia in Antalya” newspaper was followed by “Antalya” (1922-1928), “Yeni İzmir” (1922), “Tenvîr” (1924-1925), “Akdeniz” (1925-1926), “Yeni Türkiye” (1926-1928), “Resmi Antalya” (1927-1937) and “Zümrütova” (1927-1929) newspapers respectively. In addition to all these newspapers published between 1920 and 1928, “Yeni Hayat” (1920-1922), “Doğu” (1921-1922) and “Ticaret” (1927) magazines were also published. All these newspapers and magazines became representatives of the “voice of the nation” in Antalya during the foundation years of the Republic. In addition, with the increase in the number of newspapers and magazines published in the city, new printing houses were also come into operation. However, very few of these newspapers and magazines could be institutionalized and sustained. Almost all of the newspapers and magazines that were active in this period were closed shortly after the establishment. In this very first study on the subject, “Akdeniz” newspaper, published in Antalya between 1925 and 1926, is examined. In the study, firstly, the beginning years of the press history are examined in Antalya and the conditions that create the newspapers are mentioned. By considering analysis of 86 extant issues of the newspaper, content of “Akdeniz” and personality of the newspaper's founder Dr. Ferruh Niyazi is touched on. Practical purpose of the study is to give far reaching insight into the first years of press history in Antalya and to publicise the newspaper. Another purpose is to address major issues of city history during the foundation period of the republic through “Akdeniz”.

Keywords:
Antalya, Antalya press history, Akdeniz newspaper, Dr. Ferruh Niyazi Ayoğlu, Republican period.

Literature Quotes:
Dayar E. Akdeniz’, one of the First Local Newspapers in Antalya Province (1925-1926) // Journal of Modern Turkish History. Vol. 13, Is. 26. Pp. 181-207.
Number of views: 338      Download in PDF


26.
full number
Number of views: 416      Download in PDF


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